Letters to the Editor archive

 Letters to the Editor - January 2016


Feral Colony

Just thought you all might be interested in this. I discovered this in a park down along the Grand River near us in Lansing, MI. If you look closely, there is a hole in the tree above the honey comb. So, maybe the hollow in the tree is full, and they moved their hive outside. But, you can see the bees between the layers of honey comb. When it warms up, the bees become more active and cover more of the comb. When it cools down, they pull up more tightly between the layers.

Dan Bratt

Montana Beekeeper Enjoys Taking Photos of Her Bees

Attached are a few honey bee photos I took this fall on the asters in the garden at Chico Hot Springs Resort near Pray, Montana. The photos were taken a few days after we had harvested honey from the 40 hives we maintain on the resort property.   My husband, Shawn, my son, Kenyon (age 14), and I take care of the bees at Chico.  My hobby started with one hive in my back yard at my house (in town), in Livingston, Montana, we now have two. My dad, Bill Knutson, is also a hobby beekeeper in Helena, Montana. My husband was a hobby beekeeper before we reconnected (2014) and married (2015). We had been friends in college, over 27 years ago. I am the hotel manager at Chico Hot Springs Resort, and luckily I get to take care of the bees as well - it is a great, relaxing, project compared to the rest of my job here. Most of our “bee time” is volunteer.

If you’re at all interested in knowing - our two hives in town (Livingston, MT) produced nearly 130 pounds of honey, whereas the 40 ...


 Letters to the Editor - December 2015


Swarm Trap Article Was Helpful

I want to thank Dr. Leo Sharashkin and ABJ for the article “A Swarm Trap On Every Tree.” This ingenious design has enabled me to expand my apiary almost 4-fold this spring. I have put up swarm traps in the past using 10-frame hives with a full deep and an empty medium with only a success rate last year of 1 out of 8 traps. Using Dr Sharashkin’s method this year I made 8, put up 6, and caught 6.

Those other two swarm traps I did not put up did not go to waste. These light-weight easy-to-carry hives are great to just keep in the back of the truck. And, thanks to my wife and social media I received at least 30 calls/notifications about bees. Some of these were swarms where I used a newly built ready-to-go swarm trap with 5 or 6 frames with foundation and some drawn comb. Some were about already established hives in a house or garage. I used the swarm traps for the swarms for about two or three days then moved them into a full hive, reset the swarm trap and away I went on another call.

I started this spring with 5 over-wintered hives and throughout the spring I caught or cut out 22 more hives. Some of these swarms I caught were fairly small and I combined them as a double queen unit or just offed the obviously weaker queen and made one. Some were really fast growing wonderful hives all on there own.

In the past I have only caught one or two swarms each year. Catching these large numbers showed a wide variety of what is out in the wild. Lessons I have learned from this experience is to keep track of the queen/hive’s abilities and requeen as soon as possible. Unfortunately, I learned the hard way and lost several of the hives. When I gathered data and analyzed it I found that most of these hives just needed a stronger younger queen. In my case small hive beetles over ran the hives once they had dwindled to a certain point. My wife gave me the idea to try next year for small hive beetle control which is putting hives and our chickens together; chickens love small hive beetle larvae. I’ll let you know how that turns out.

These traps cost about $22 each including two straps for each, nails, screws, and paint, but not counting the frames and foundation. This is approximately $176 total. With a total of 18 of these new hives being obtained using these new swarm traps, each of these potentially $110 “packages” only cost me $9.78 each. Next year I plan on building an additional 16 or more traps and expanding. I also will be ready to requeen as soon as I see the first sign of a weak queen as well as put my chickens to work. Hey Dr. Sharashkin, have any more wonderful ideas I could use?

Thank you,
Brad Staggs, Southwest Missouri

Utility Company Saves Honey Bees

Attached article from the Circleville (Ohio) Herald shows the great lengths a utility company went in order to move a colony of bees. Perhaps it would be of interest to your readers. Large companies often get attention from beekeepers and environmentalists for seemingly ignoring honey bees and the challenges they face. This is a refreshing article.

David Crawford
Circleville beekeeper

Ohio Utility Workers Move Bees Discovered in Utility Pole
by Amanda Plotts
Staff Reporter
Circleville Herald

A utility pole replacement project turned into a mission to save bees after workers came across a beehive in an old woodpecker hole in a 90- foot utility pole on the west side of Goodchild Rd. just south of Circleville, OH.

In August, Service Electric Company was contracted by American Electric Power (AEP) for a utility pole replacement project in the area.

“We look for hazards and in this case, we found a hive of bees,” said Jim Scott, field safety coordinator for Service Electric Company.

Scott said that Service Electric Company always strives to leave everything better than they found it on a job site and that includes the environment. With bees being important to agriculture, Scott said he knew something had to be done to save them.

“AEP has policy of do no harm and Service Electric embraces that policy,” Scott said. “Our company promotes and supports AEP. Their polices are our policies.”

Once Scott was aware of the beehive, he checked on the bees daily and ...


 Letters to the Editor - November 2015


More Research Needed on Herbicide Effects on Bees

I would very much like to see more research on the effect of herbicides on honey bee brood development. Currently there is next to none, so far as I can tell. True, most herbicides are considered to be relatively safe to use around ADULT honey bees. But as we all know, animals (including both humans and insects) in their embryonic stages are much more susceptible to environmental toxins.

My interest in this subject arose after losing 2 of my 3 hives last summer. The only thing “different” was that I had contracted with a lawn chemical company to treat our Mexican Sandburr-infested lawn every two or three weeks. The bees seemed to love gathering that tainted water from the puddles left daily after lawn irrigation. Soon, the brood patterns were all out of whack, and before long two of them dwindled down to wax-moth fodder (the other hive remained strong, but may have been watering at our bird feeder). Maybe it was just a coincidence, but I STRONGLY urge other beekeepers to, as I did, email the Environmental Protection Agency at beekill@epa.gov if they should notice a similar “coincidence” with their hives.

Sincerely, a now Ex-Beekeeper,
Clinton D. Stucky
Wichita, KS

Honey Bee Poem

I am a big fan of your magazine and of the practice of beekeeping. I also love bees and promote their health and conservation locally. I wrote the attached poem about my love for bees and hoped to submit it for possible publication consideration. My Grandmother and Grandfather used to be beekeepers in Colorado and this poem reflects the passion they ignited in me as a young child. Thank you for your time and consideration.

Amy Pinney
Juneau, AK

Love for the Honey Bee
Oh may I live in a chalet
With straw skeps within the cladding
Hosting harmonious, fuzzy honey bees
Who give perpetual bloom to my gardens
I’d befriend Ms. Queen
In gratitude for her oblations
And touring her to wildflower meadows
Observing the colony’s charming social brilliance
As the hive fills with liquid gold
As they huddle in the cold winter
Like families around a fire
Soaring with the drones in my dreams
I’d practice apiculture
And glorify the folklore
With painted bees in my kitchen décor
And cached jars of honey in variegated colors
Reminiscent of summers’ efflorescence
And save the darkest sapid jars for bosom friends
Flavors and aromas of nectars gathered
With bouquets of huckleberry and fireweed
Stirring sweet teas
And spread on steaming cornbread
Corking bottles of fermented mead
Toasting a summers day
And chewing the wax like gum
With snacks of seeping, candied honeycomb
My energy and health then boosted
My cuts and sores then healed
Using apitherapy of the ages
Twine hanging dipped beeswax candles
That honors their humming and their sting
For a livelihood they’ve bestowed upon mankind
For millennia and millennia to come.

Amy Pinney

Wants Commercial Honey Marketing Articles

I was rather excited to see “Successful Honey Marketing” as one of the articles announced on the cover of the the latest ABJ. I extremely disappointed in the content of the article. The headline of “Successful Honey Marketing” and content like ...


Letters to the Editor - October 2015


My Open Garage Door Lesson

I would like to relate a lesson learned. I had extracted some supers and had replaced them back on the hive for the girls to clean up. After a couple days, I removed them and placed them into storage; except for one.  This one I left on a short stand for some reason I don’t recall or I’m just suppressing that reason to save face. I got busy doing other things, leaving the garage door open.  Sometime later I remembered I needed to close the garage door and I have been having some issues with robbing. Then the ‘Maybe beekeeping isn’t such a good idea at home moment.’ Bees were so thick in the garage they were breaking the safety light beam on the garage door preventing it from closing. Let me tell you, that’s a lot of bees. The solution was simple enough, get the door closed, turn off the lights, and leave a side door cracked so light would show though. Bees will leave a darken area and go to the light, so the garage cleared out within and half hour or so. I learned  that from the time I left my truck door open and the dome light on while dealing with a swarm at night, but that is another lesson learned.

Steve Vandiver
Billings, MO

An Eye for Beekeeping

This photograph [at right] was taken on August 1st while we were inspecting our top bar hive. Half of the colony swarmed 5 weeks prior, and we were waiting for them to requeen. That’s why we were in there. We wanted to make sure a new queen had emerged and to see what she’d been up to. We were met with all kinds of good news, all of which is demonstrated by this brood comb: eggs, larvae, capped brood, and pollen and honey stores. In jest, I peered at my wife through a small tunnel in the comb. She happened to have a camera in her hand at the time, and snapped this shot. The eye doesn’t immediately stand out, but once you see it, it’s quite striking.

Noel Miller

Are We Crying Wolf?

Reading last month’s article by Keith Delaplane was a bit discouraging. Normally I very much enjoy his writing, but the content of the Aug. article was disturbing. In it he explains why the Group refused to concede two points. One that the bee decline was not new, and two, that pesticide poisoning was unintentional. He did a great job of outlining the facts, fair detail about the decline of managed colonies being macro economics, and an excellent job on pointing out Varroa problems. But then goes on to say that the Georgia PPP (pollinator protection plan) decided that the new losses were different. At the end he points out that there is a conflict of science and opinion. The disturbing point is that the Georgia PPP decided to come down on the side of opinion!

Any researcher can see several things are going on: First, managed hives and honey production are UP here in the last few years. The chart on page 912 shows it. As was pointed out, the real decline in hives were social economics, with Varroa compounding. Beekeeping is a ton of work! We move heavy boxes around again and again for honey or pollination, with little remuneration. In 1995 the price was .57 a lb! It wasn’t even until 2002 that it broke the $1.00 a lb barrier. Add the cost of Varroa management and losses and its not a business for the money. Any researcher knows this. That’s the steady driver of declines for the last 60 years, as well as the driver of the increase! Honey at $2.00 is profitable again. Hence the increase. WE also make note of the “huge losses” and “summer losses” being unprecedented and unsustainable. This is not a true statement in any form.

What is new is groups like Bee informed, and the others researching and gathering data from new sources and unprecedented levels. Via the press and the internet, we suddenly have data that didn’t exist before. While its true, writings of the early 1900 don’t show huge summer losses, such writings were by the real serious beekeepers. If you survey the more experienced beekeepers now, you will find things are about the same (exceptions for Varroa noted). What’s happening is we are gathering data from a lot of new places and sources without a filter on experience and not much of one for locations. I expected better understanding of the data from the researchers. High winter losses and even summer losses are not new in any form. Add to that pesticide poisoning is lower than ever. What’s happening is a huge spike in the “reporting process” any real beekeeper knows this. I grew up in Iowa in the 70’s we lost hives to pesticides constantly. No one came around and kept track. It was part of the game. I have a lot more hives now, and don’t worry about pesticides nearly as much as I used to, but do get regular questionnaires asking me about it. I don’t ever recall a BIP form or even a USDA form from the 1980’s.

What I found discouraging with the article is the Georgia PPP unwillingness to acknowledge the facts. It seems from this point of view the entire goal is to continue the funding train and the battle between modern AG and beekeepers (it was not mentioned who the other stakeholder was but seems pretty obvious). If science admits that this is not new, and that modern AG is actually helping pollinators, funding slows down. It seems that CCD has run its course, education on mites and managing them is getting better and better, and new AG products are reducing pesticide exposures, but if we admit that then funding dries up. It sure seemed to me from the article, the goal is to keep that battle going and see if we can get funding from Washington. I find that a very disappointing position coming from one of the states that produces more bees and honey than most others. Georgia produces more than ½ the package bees in the US, and always ranks very high in honey production, amidst a large amount of swamps, agriculture and urban sprawl. Georgia should be touting the cooperative venture and success instead of pandering to Washington politics.

While I do understand that this perspective is not “popular” in today’s beekeeping, reality and facts are stubborn. If we continue to cry wolf and beg for funding, when we need it, it won’t be there.

Charles Linder

How Markets Benefit Honeybees and Mankind

After more than a decade of panicked reports about honeybees disappearing and potentially going extinct because of a phenomenon called “colony collapse disorder,” The Washington Post reported last week that the number of hives in the United States has reached a 20 year high. At the same time, I was making presentation at a meeting of the American Legislative Exchange Council, explaining that globally, there are more beehives today than there were in 1961, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations.
That is not to say that beekeepers haven’t had some challenges related to diseases and other factors that affect hive health. While such issues may raise the cost of keeping hives, they have not led to any serious long-term decline that warrants panic about the survival of this species.

Honeybees will not go extinct any time soon for the ...


Letters to the Editor - September 2015


“Save the Bees” Art Contest

Below are the objectives of our ‘Save the Bees Art’ contest. We just completed the contest and announced the winner. We had over 1,000 people visit my table, admire the hives and talk about bees and honey.

The community was very excited about the contest and want to expand it to some of the elementary schools as an art project and   teaching opportunity. Maybe I’ll use nuc boxes for the younger children.

I’ve attached some pictures that include the American Honey Princess Hayden Wolf. She attended and got to talk bees and announce the winner.

Objectives / Benefits
- Increase Awareness of Bees and their Importance to your food supply.
- Education: Bees are dying across the country. Teach what people can do to save the bees.
- Use Art as the vehicle to promote and advertise Beekeeping and health benefits of Honey!
- Promote and Increase traffic for the Winnsboro Farmers Market.
- Promote Art and Artists in an art community.
- Beautiful and Unique painted hives for Texas Gold Honey Farm.
- Showcase artist talent.
- Provide Educational Projects for Schools and other community groups.

As I see it, I will benefit from this project because I get the artwork in my apiary. The farmers market would benefit if we can display hives and drive traffic. Schools would get an art project and teaching opportunity.

Bill Zimmer
VP Collin County Beekeepers Association

Canadian Winter Colony Losses are Down

Canadian Association of Professional Apiculturists Statement on Honey Bee Wintering Losses in Canada (2015)

The Canadian Association of Professional Apiculturists (CAPA) conducted the annual honey bee wintering loss survey for the winter of 2014/15 in Canada. A set of harmonized questions based on national beekeeping industry profiles was used in the survey. The Provincial Apiculturists collected ...


Letters to the Editor - August 2015


Queen Bee Art Receives National Publicity

Bees—We hear so much about them lately, but most people still aren’t aware how much work bees do around them each day. Honey bees are constantly flying above us, back and forth on their business, unseen and unsung. My friend, Marty Snye, is a blacksmith and beekeeper, and I am a glass artist and beekeeper. We often work together on hives and other projects, but our love of bees caused us to truly collaborate for the first time on this piece called The Queen.

My name is Scott Ouderkirk, and I am lucky enough to live in the Thousand Islands, which is a section of the St. Lawrence River on the border of New York State and Canada. I do most of my work alone in my studio overlooking the river, so I don’t often have to answer to anyone about my art…until my wife tells me something needs to be changed. Working together on a project with another artist isn’t something that I am used to; but Marty and I had been talking about creating some work together so that we could have a show of collaborative pieces using my glass work framed by his iron work. I had created a small bee piece for an illustration in my book, The Wind in the Islands, which Marty had framed with iron. We thought, why not scale this piece up to make a more powerful statement? Thus, I began sketching some ideas.

At about the same time, a call for entries for the American Glass Guild’s 2015 exhibit in the National Cathedral in Washington DC arrived. We decided to enter this piece. The next thing you know, our entry was accepted, and we got to work.

My first drawings were fairly simple following the small original. I showed the drawing to Lorraine Austin, who is a glassblower and my go-to person for design help. Her ideas made the design much more organic and complicated. She also created the glass ball which sits at the top of the piece. Marty made a few changes to the full size drawing; then he built the frame. The frame is made of steel which is heated and hammered into shape. Marty works with very traditional methods; only using more contemporary methods when appropriate. In this case, it was easier for me to create glass pieces to match the frame rather than the other way around.

Once I had Marty’s finished frame in my studio, I began creating fused glass pieces which would fit into the frame sections. As many as eight layers of colored and clear glass were stacked up and fused together. I included in the painting a selection of flowers and plants which honey bees visit during their busy lives. The small bees are painted on the back of the glass to create depth. The technique of glass painting used on The Queen consists of adding black and brown outlines and shading to colored fused glass. The image of the glass pieces on the light table shows the glass before the final firing. In the final firing, the glass was silver stained, which involves applying a silver compound to the back of the glass and firing it. This causes a yellow staining of the glass and is where stained glass gets its name. The silver staining was not added to the wing areas, allowing them to remain clear.

The Queen currently resides in the National Cathedral in Washington, DC until July 31, 2015. We hope that it will make the many visitors to the cathedral think about honey bees and how they help all of us. It is a partnership that more people need to be aware of. The plight of the bees should be taken into consideration when environmental decisions are made because it is our plight as well.

It is important for an artist to step out of his or her comfort zone occasionally. Every collaboration leads to new ideas and growth for all parties involved. A person who is unfamiliar with a process may ask for something to be done which needs new techniques to be learned or even developed. Marty and I find this to be true whether we are working as artists or beekeepers; and this project was no exception.  Fortunately, as I grow older, I find my thirst for knowledge continues to increase.

Scott Ouderkirk
New York

●    Scott Ouderkirk Studios is on facebook and GlassGoat.com 607-377-1726
●    The River Forge and Marty Snye are on Facebook. 315-375-4433
●    Snake Oil Glassworks and Lorraine Austin are on facebook and Snakeoilglassworks.com. 315-685-5091

New Minnesota Bee Lab Groundbreaking-Request for Donations

The time is at hand. For those of you who have been waiting for word about the groundbreaking of the new Bee and Pollinator Research Lab at the University of Minnesota, it will happen August 2nd and 3rd. Ask for details when you send in your donation. The name has been changed, but the same lab is to be built.

Some years ago I wrote a letter to keepers about raising money for this lab. I have enclosed a copy with this letter (printed below). Some people have been waiting to see the shovel go into the ground before they donate. It’s no longer a wish but a reality, so get your check book out. It’s happening.

Much helpful research has come out of the Northern Lab from Hygenic Bees, increasing the genetic diversity, improving conservation programs, delivering research discoveries to keepers, reducing pesticide uses which are weakening the bees, and propolis uses for fighting bacteria. The research list goes on and on. Check online about what’s happening at this lab.

My first letter says it all. The keepers named are long gone, but the creed they followed lives on. Some people want it to happen, others make it happen. I am calling on you to make it happen. It’s time to be a part of not a bystander. You benefit from research so support it.
Have a great summer.

Liz Vaenoski
Vaenoski Honey Farms
Clinton, Wisconsin

Important — The lab has a different name from when I wrote this letter. Make checks out to Bee and Pollinator Research Lab, University of Minnesota, 235 Skok Hall, 2003 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN  55108.

My Original Minnesota Lab Article

I want to address you and call you what you are: A “Keeper of Bees” not a ”beekeeper.” the difference is your willingness to go far beyond what is expected. I am asking that of you today. We need to support the new Bee Research Center at the University of Minnesota. I am not a professional fundraiser, so I don’t have a slick presentation for you. I can only tell you from my heart that I passionately believe in this project.

You are a part of a very special group of people. You know as well as I do that those who are most successful with bees are innovative, hard working, creative, and able to visualize results. You like the outdoors, nature, traveling and sunshine during pollination. You can handle the setbacks and put-downs. Most importantly, you are willing to help each other out - even loan equipment or help others to rebuild when disaster strikes.

Once again, it’s time to step forward beyond what is expected. We NEED this lab. And, the University of Minnesota NEEDS our help.

I am talking about the Center for Bee Research and Discovery at the University of Minnesota. I’ve been involved with this project for some time. I believe so passionately in this that I decided to include it in my will. My gift will be in honor of the Keepers of Bees that inspired others - people like my John, Homer Park and Cliff Thomas.

The work being done by the talented scientists at the “U” of “M” has far surpassed the present facilities. It’s time to upgrade rebuild and enlarge. The days of keeping bees in hollow logs has gone. Research has pulled us out of the past and is helping with the current day’s problems and I pray for more solutions in the future.

Now is an opportunity to get involved. I ask you to consider giving and maybe even more than a one shot gift. Whether or not you choose to be a part of this, please share this report with others who have the means and heart to support this goal.

Thanks so much. I have always supported Keepers and will continue as long as I am able. This is not lip service on my part, but an appeal from my heart for your help and my continued loyalty to you the Keepers and the Bee Industry.

Vaenoski Honey Farms
12026 S. State Road 140
Clinton, Wisconsin  53525

Oliver Articles Very Useful

 I just wanted to take a second to express my appreciation toward Randy Oliver’s articles. They are truly a joy to read, and I find them very useful in my day-to-day beekeeping practices. In my opinion, these articles are the most valuable pieces ...


Letters to the Editor - July 2015


Crop Pollination on Small Farms

I am a beekeeper in Urbana IL. Together  with fellow beekeeper, Rachel Coventry, we were recently awarded a two-year NCR SARE grant to study crop pollination on small farms. The idea is to try to persuade the bees to go to the target farm and forest crops. We will compare Italians and Russians, strong hives vs. small hives, different positions around the farm and forest, etc. We will collect samples of pollen from the blooms, then look for their density in the honey.

We are not (yet) experts in pollen identification, so your article by Jeanne Hansen in the Dec. 2014 issue was absolutely the best timing for our project. We are grateful to you for printing the article. Using a microscope is so important in this world of modern beekeeping.
You can see us on Facebook at Chasing the Honey.

Maggie Wachter
Second Nature Honey
Urbana IL

Driveway Bait Hives

After about 7 years of thinking, I finally placed some bait hives on nice stands along our driveway. This makes them easy to check. These should be cute for beekeepers and other visitors coming up our farm driveway. And with 75 beehives in the back yard, I hope to entice swarms to stick around.

Andy Hemken
Andy the Bee Guy

Bee Cage Mailbox Decoration

While wondering what to do with my bee cages, I decided to add one as a decoration to my mailbox post. There’s hardly a person walking by that doesn’t stop to look at it and wonder what it is. If I am in the front yard, they ask ...


 Letters to the Editor - June 2015


Students Rap About Bee collapse

I’m a science teacher at the Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. I teach a class where students get to make science music videos and a group chose to rap about the worldwide decline in honeybee populations.
Their video premiers today (Tuesday April 14) and can be seen here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7LInhcqqLw
A student wrote up a press release with more details, including a link to high-res photos should you like to help publicize the video. It would mean a lot to them to get some love from the American Bee Journal!

Tom McFadden
Twitter: @ScienceWithTom

“Please Don’t Kill My Hive”: Students Rap About  Bee Collapse

by 7th/8th graders Alex, Beckett, Hunter, & Pranav

HILLSBOROUGH APRIL 14, 2015 — Four seventh and eighth grade students from The Nueva School, a Pre-K through 12 school, in Hillsborough, California are releasing “Please Don’t Kill My Hive”, a science-ified version of the popular Kendrick Lamar song “B**** Don’t Kill My Vibe”. They rap about the honey bee population decline: from the effects of this collapse  to possible causes and ways that people can help stop it. With help from their science teacher, Tom Mcfadden, these students wrote and performed the lyrics, then shot and edited the music video. Tom’s “Science Rap Academy” class meets once a week for an hour and half each Friday. Students have been working on this project since September and are thrilled to finally release it to the world. They hope that their video will help raise awareness and encourage people to take action.

YouTube Link to “Please Don’t Kill My Hive”: https://www.youtube.co/watch?v=n7LInhcqqLw

Link to high-res still images for media posts: https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B9axex0RaQwIfi1HMnNJN0hhZGdVVXRtV3dnV2t0R0pGeXdOMXlmVnp4dGdXUGw1MGRoMnM&usp=sharing

Student quotes:
“I think that this video will definitely help raise awareness about the honey bee collapse, and ways to help stop it,” — Alex, Co-Producer, 7th grade

“Throughout the process of the making of this video, we had one goal in mind: to fully educate our viewers of this issue that we are currently fighting. The reality of it is, not just a couple of small groups around the world will be affected, but the entirety of the human population.” — Pranav, Co-Producer, and Rapper, 7th grade

“Our aim was to inform the public of the issue of a honey bee decline, and we did this through music, cinematics, and entertainment. We felt that this method of education was the most effective, and the viewer was much more likely to take away the concepts and information we were trying to convey, and take action against this issue.” — Beckett, Co-Producer, Rapper, and filmmaker, 7th grade

April North Carolina Beekeeper Article

In the April 2015 issue of ABJ, I made an omission in the article entitled “North Carolina Sideline Beekeeper Overcomes Physical Problems In Order to Continue Doing What He Loves.” I inadvertently forgot to include my business name and website with all the exchange of ideas and interviews by telephone and email. My business name is Golden Delight Honey, LLC., http://www.Golden

DelightHoney.com. Also the correct URL for Berry Apiary is http://www.berrysbees.com. It was incorrectly listed.

Thank you to you, ABJ, and Mary & Bill Weaver for allowing me the opportunity to publish the article on my small business in ABJ.

James Henderson
Monroe, NC

More and Better Bee Forage

First let me say that I enjoy the American Bee Journal and have learned alot by reading it.
The article in the April addition titled North Carolina Sideline Beekeeper inspired me to write this.

I have been talking for years but no one seems to hear. All city, state and federal owned land (parks, schools, road right-of-ways and utility right-of-ways,  corners and edges of farm land could be planted in bee-friendly plants, flowers, shrubs and trees.

The Bee Buffer Project started by Burts Bees with the free bee-friendly wildflower seed is a great thing. I wish everyone including myself could get seeds.

The powerlines and other right-of-ways should be planted in these bee-friendly plants.

All the right-of-ways are sprayed or mowed. Spraying is more damaging than mowing.
I agree that goldenrod or aster will never get big enough to touch the hives.

I will keep on talking and hope someone hears. Both the bees and I will thank you.

Ray Cashion
Asheboro, NC
Bee Busters, Inc.

An Open Letter to Chappie McChesney of Florida—Beekeeping with Eyes Wide Open

When you spoke of new beekeepers not seeing the truth of the Top Bar hive, I am glad you mentioned we can all be blind at times. For many years now I have ...


 Letters to the Editor - May 2015


Fedor Lazutin: Telling The Bees

“Daddy, when you die you won’t be able to care for your bees,” said my son Yarosvet, 4, then continued: “But this is OK, because I’ll care for them in your place.” I swallowed the tears and answered: “Thank you, Yarosvet! I really appreciate that.”

I had a similar feeling as I walked around my snow-covered beeyard in the morning of February 17, 2015. Following an ancient custom, I whispered into each hive’s entrance: “Fedor died.” Looking at some bees frozen in the snow and hearing the steady hum of their colonies, I marveled at the great miracle of the continuance of life even as each living being eventually fades away.

Dr. Thomas Seeley of Cornell University, author of Honeybee Democracy, considers Fedor Lazutin one of Russia’s foremost natural beekeepers, and feels that Fedor’s book Keeping Bees With a Smile: A Vision and Practice of Natural Apiculture will “shake up the thinking of the independent-minded beekeepers in North America and Europe.”

Fedor’s apiary near Kaluga, some 150 miles southwest of Moscow, drew visitors from around the world as people came to witness a natural beekeeping approach few of us would even imagine possible. In his entire life Fedor has not treated his bees even once against disease; never fed bees sugar; never requeened a hive; and has not made a single split, masterfully propagating colonies by natural swarming.

He also planted vast fields of wildflowers and hundreds of species of nectar-producing trees and shrubs. Fedor wrote in Keeping Bees With a Smile: “The magnificent linden trees stand to this very day as a living reminder of the good people who planted them so long ago. What else could serve as such a beautiful memory of a human being?”

A world full of flowers, healthy bees, and children’s laughter was Fedor’s vision of the future. A world without war where happy families live close to the land in harmony with Nature. Today, the living oasis Fedor and his family created serves as proof that this way of life is indeed possible. Visiting his quaint home and beeyard in 2010 - a hundred beautiful horizontal hives with peaked roofs and 18”-deep frames - totally transformed my ideas about what can be achieved in beekeeping, and in life in general.

Fedor Lazutin presented a series of natural beekeeping workshops to hundreds of American beekeepers in October 2014. I feel so privileged and humbled I had the opportunity to hear these enlightening presentations. Completely unaware of Fedor’s serious condition, I did not do a video recording, thinking: “I’ll do it all next time when he comes in 2015.” But luckily we did record the audio, and will be able to share his talks and free hive plans with everybody at www.HorizontalHive.com

After returning to Russia in November Fedor organized a big natural beekeeping conference in Moscow, and sent me more of his fireweed honey. Just three weeks ago I received a short email from him: “Leo. All is Good. Thank you so much. F” This was the last I heard from him.
Three days before his passing my wife saw him in a dream. He was so happy and smiling. He gave her a wink and said: “Sorry I won’t be able to come back.”

Fedor Lazutin will continue to live through all the bees and flowers that thrive thanks to his methods in apiaries around the world. As a seasoned commercial beekeeper from Michigan put it, after reading Keeping Bees With a Smile and building his first Lazutin double-wall well-insulated hive: “This book should be a boon to cold-climate beekeepers. It’s nice to know that someone has been able to see the woods for all the trees.”

When Fedor was here in the Ozarks four months ago for his seminar, he liked to walk a forest trail. As I write this, the path is covered in snow that would freeze any bee chancing out of the hive in this weather. But this snow will soon melt to nourish the flowers and become the first nectar of the spring.

To celebrate Fedor’s life work, you can get a copy of Keeping Bees With a Smile for only $20 (that’s $15 off the regular price) until May 31, 2015. Order online at www.HorizontalHive.com or send a check for $25 (this includes shipping) to: Deep Snow Press, HC 73 Box 470, Drury, MO 65638.

Dr. Leo Sharashkin

Beekeeping Finance - Integrating the Honey Business

Several advantages exist for a beekeeper to integrate their small to medium size honey business. Integrating one’s honey business includes such things as selling your honey bee products directly to the end consumer and selling retail, not wholesale. While you will incur the product retail selling costs, you will also realize the retail markup and the production markup. One should note that selling retail is typically a different skill set than producing honey. You will incur additional jar and label costs instead of the bucket cost, in addition to the additional time filling the jars and time and expense traveling to the retail stores. You may also want to consider selling retail on the web with a web “home page.” However selling on the web you need a minimum amount of sales to cover the web development and sustaining cost.

The Financial Analysis Honey Production, Pollination and Queen Rearing Spreadsheets (David E. MacFawn, dmacfawn@aol.com) have been used to analyze various bee operation scenarios to determine investment strategies. The spreadsheets give an insight into pricing strategy, overall operation profit, total investment outlay, individual product line cost and profit, and blended honey pricing and costs. The spreadsheet is pretax with the accounting tax information not included since everyone’s tax situation is different; it is a business planning tool. The Net Present Value (NPV) method is used to determine if your bee operation strategy will work and make you money. NPV is the standard that most United States corporations use in investment decisions. You can run wholesale and retail pricing strategies with the spreadsheet.

Retail markups over wholesale may range anywhere from 30% to 50% with a production markup to wholesale typically lower. Often, the wholesale markups from production cost is in the cost plus fixed fee range more so than market based. This is typically due to fewer number of wholesale buyers with the added issue that small to medium size operations can typically take advantage of the “local honey” retail markup. You need to know your costs per container to ensure you are making a profit and what it is.

For the small to medium producer, you can realize the increased profit from...


Letters to the Editor - April 2015


April Cover Picture - Bee on Buckwheat Blossom

A number of years ago I submitted a photo of a honey bee on a chicory blossom, and was privileged to have it appear on the front cover of the February 2010 issue (volume 150, No. 2). Today I am attaching a photo I took when we planted a field of buckwheat on our farm, and I thought you might enjoy it. I entered this photo in 4-H where it received champion at the county level and went on to receive a blue ribbon at the Indiana State Fair.

When I sent that photo in 2010 I was fairly new to beekeeping, but since then I have truly been blessed with my endeavors in beekeeping. With my family we maintain about 70-100 hives, and for every one of the six years I took Bees as a project in 4-H, I placed Grand Champion in my county, and went on to receive blue ribbons and special merits at the state fair.

In 2010 I was named Indiana Young Beekeeper of the Year and now I am honored to serve as the 2015 Indiana Honey Queen. Publications like the ABJ have been an excellent source of information for me and have provided much insight into the fascinating world of apiculture. Thank you so much for your great magazine; keep up the wonderful work!

Rebecca Eldridge

Snow Covered Colonies in Connecticut

Good morning from a chilly Higganum, CT! My dad, George Hartke, found his bees covered in the middle of Blizzard Juno!

Jessica Hartke
Honey Bee Farm
Higganum, CT
Bee Busters, Inc.

The Blind Beekeeper

We all like to think we are open minded and thoughtful people when it comes to our daily lives and especially our beekeeping. We want what is best for our bees as that is a great benefit to us if our bees are healthy and thriving. Good hives bring in lots of nectar and produce lots of honey which provide us with the money to continue doing what we love to do in our daily lives. Many of us sell by-products of the hive like the wax, the cosmetics we make, candles, pollen, propolis, honey, on and on it goes.

But how did we get to where we are today? Was it pure luck, or did we have the good sense to find a mentor who could help us grow with our bees and be as valuable to our bees as they are to us? Did we join a beekeeping club and attend meetings regularly where we could ask questions and get good answers to the problems we were having with our bees at different times of the year? Is it time to pull honey? What are the bees feeding on? How much smoke do we need to use to open a hive? Again, the questions are endless and they should all be asked and answered. But many times, this is where the problems begin. Many beekeepers are blind.

No, they can see all right, but somewhere in their minds they cut off their own learning experience by not allowing the light of truth to shine in.

This happens with new and longtime beekeepers alike. Example: A new beekeeper joins or visits a beekeeping club and asks a question such as, “Should I start with top bar hives?” The leaders in the club may answer, “No,” and let it go at that. Now the person asking the question is bewildered because they may have little funds to buy pre-made hives or may have read somewhere how great top bar hives can be. This can be a turn off to many as they have blinded themselves to the truth. The mentor has caused this temporary blindness by not explaining why starting with a top bar may not be good for a beginner.

Starting with top bar hives may be fun and exciting, but it does take some understanding on how the hives work. Many new beekeepers have worked top bar hives and have been very successful as some folks just seem to be in the right place at the right time or just plain lucky.

Many experienced beekeepers have seen the problems that may ...


Letters to the Editor - March 2015


March Cover Picture

The cover photo for this issue is actually a beautiful watercolor work by artist Jim Whiteside.
When I met Jim I was looking for another friend of mine who is also an artist and my visit was to commission a painting to raise funds for our National Honey Bee Day event to be held in Ocala, Florida.

I told Jim about the honey bees and how we all can help protect and save them by just doing small things like planting a bee friendly garden and maybe stop using so many chemicals.
As we talked, Jim made it very plain to me that he is a very caring and loving person and he offered to do a small painting for our auction.

To make a long story short, the auctioneer Laurence Cutts was the high bidder and now owns a very nice piece of art. But that is not the end of the story. Jim has decided to help more by donating the painting you see on this cover. It was purchased at the American Beekeeping Federation (ABF) auction for $700.00 by Mary and Dave Mendes from Florida to help raise funds for the Honey Queen Program. Thank You Mary and Dave!

And still even more….. you too can have a print of this beautiful watercolor with your own logo, business card, or whatever you would like Jim to put into the large square box in the painting.

Just send an email to Jim along with what you would like him to place into the painting and you will receive your own personalized print in the mail.

And last but not least, Jim is donating a portion of all sales to the ABF Honey Queen Program as an ongoing effort to support beekeeping. He has lowered his prices to help the ABF.
These will make great gifts for your beekeeping friends, awards for dedicated workers in your clubs and associations, or just a personal keepsake from a true friend of the bees, Jim Whiteside.

You can contact Jim at http://www.dailypaintworks.com/artists/jim-white

Small Card “A”  4.5 x 5.5 with Envelope - $2.95 ea. - Set of 4 - $10.00 Shipping & Handling, add $3.95.
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Chappie McChesney

An Experiment Regarding Beehives and Climate Control

I’ve started a project regarding air-conditioning systems for beehives, and would like expert opinions and feedback. Currently, I’m enrolled at the College of Applied Technology in Nashville, pursuing a degree in HVAC/R technology. My father and a few relatives have been beekeeping for years, and robbing the hives attracted me to the study of bees. My goal is to create a system that cools hives during the hottest months of the year, freeing up the bees who spend their time regulating the temperature of the hive to aid in the honey-making process. The article at the bottom is one I will cite as my inspiration for this. My only improvement to their system is to incorporate a specially designed circuit board to keep track of data, like temperature and humidity, operate the thermostat of the system, and potentially notify my phone via SMS message with the data; the thermostat could theoretically be controlled by a smartphone, too. I spoke with Barry Richards from the NABA website and he referred me to you, while providing me with insight about the natural circulation of beehives. I’d like to feature my experiment, research, and findings in your magazine. Thanks for taking the time to read this, and I eagerly await your questions and feedback.


Joseph Rice

Honey Bees Are Not Disappearing

For most of a decade now people have been saying the bees are disappearing. You can ask just about anyone on the street and they know the bees are disappearing. They can usually tell you that bees are endangered and will soon disappear unless we quickly find a smoking gun and slap a ban on some pesticide, and if we don’t, “Einstein says if the bees disappear, mankind with follow within three years.” We as beekeepers are only too aware of our consistently high winter losses. The losses hurt, but we have all benefitted to some degree from the upsurge in public interest in beekeeping, and it has translated to more government funding for research to solve our problems.

Here’s the thing with those facts though. In 2005, when this whole thing began, there were 2,410,000 managed hives in the United States, and now (as of 2013) there are 2,640,000. You don’t have the be a physicist to see that the second number is higher than the first number — almost 10% higher in fact. And if you look at a graph, the number has gone steadily up almost every year during that time. If you look at a graph of the world bee population for the last 50 years, it’s going up and up, if you look at a graph of the US bee population since 1900 … well it goes up to a peak in 1947 and then comes back down again. This is mostly relevant because a very selective graph of the bee population going back to 1947 specifically is frequently attached to stories about the coming beepocalypse. In fact, even the Einstein quote is incorrect – a quick googling easily reveals that there’s no record of him saying this. And why would he? He was indisputably a very very smart man, but he was a physicist, not an environmental biologist.

So the question is, why are people perpetuating this alarmist and misleading story of a coming beemaggedon? It would be nice to think it’s all just an innocent misperception or at worst people in the bee community who enjoy the increased attention too much to correct the illusion, but unfortunately there are some people profiteering off the whole story.
The first major category is people with an agenda to ban ...


Letters to the Editor - February 2015


February Cover Picture

Most Wisconsin farmers, especially those that grow corn, will probably tell you that Wisconsin is over-populated with White Tail deer.  They are inquisitive animals and will find every corn field in the State.  They will also check out beekeepers’ beehives in the winter, but unlike  some other animals, will not try to get at the honey.

Wisconsin painter Marie App has had seven of her paintings reproduced on covers of beekeepers’ national magazine covers.  She exhibits watercolor and oil paintings in several Wisconsin galleries. To contact the artist for commissions or beekeeping prints and cards, email her at marieapp@hotmail.com.

Hive Heating

For those who would consider heating their hive in the winter, there is a better and possibly safer way to do it, if a person has some electrical know how. Instead of using a light bulb, I would suggest using a power resistor as the heat source. The bees don’t need the light, and a power resistor produces heat only. If a 120 volt source of power is used, a 500 ohm power resistor would produce 28.8 watts of heat. However, I think wiring 120 volts into a humid beehive is not something I would recommend. A safer method would be to use a 12 volt source of power, from a battery charger, where a 5 ohm resistor would produce 28.8 watts of heat, or more, depending on the charger.

Each resistor would draw about 2.5 amps, so a 10 amp charger could heat four hives. It is important to note that a power resistor rated for up to 100 watts or more should be used, to dissipate the heat over a larger area. The 100 watt resistor is 6.5 inches long by 3/4 inch in diameter, making it easier to fit in a hive than a light bulb would be.

Dewey Hassig

Queens Killed by Beekeepers?

The title of Larry Connor's column in the December issue (Many Queens Are Killed By Beekeepers) and his first sentence relating a quote from a queen producer "that 50 percent of his queens are killed by beekeepers" in the context of new beekeepers and newbee instructors implies that there are bad practices other than the usual rough handling, dropping on the ground etc. that beginners engage in that kill queens and that those of us who are beekeepers and mentors or instructors need to warn newbees about these dangers.  Instead he told us of the ways in which newbees (or any of us for that matter) might kill colonies by not recognizing the integrated biology of queen and colony thus killing or removing cells of needed replacement queens.  Dr. Connor makes a number of  good points but never really addresses the concern brought up by the first paragraph's queen producer.  Beekeepers kill many queens by destroying supersedure cells but how do beekeepers kill queens provided by queen producers?  This would be useful to know and to pass along to newbees. 

Brent Weisman
Tampa, FL


Letters to the Editor - January 2015


Bees for Development

Thank you for the excellent article that you have published about us by William Blomstedt (Volume 154, No 11, page 1247).  We are all delighted by this article – William visited us by chance and for just one day, and has captured the essence of our organisation very well indeed.  We hope that we might gain a few more supporters in North America.
Thank you again for providing us with this excellent coverage, and with kind regards

Dr Nicola Bradbear
Director, Bees for Development
President, Apimondia Scientific Commission Beekeeping for Rural Development
1 Agincourt Street, Monmouth NP25 3DZ
United Kingdom Tel  +44 (0)1600 714848
The Bees for Development Trust UK Registered Charity 1078803
We help vulnerable communities in poor countries to achieve self-sufficiency through beekeeping

First North American Honey Bees Brought by Spanish Settlers?

In the September issue of ABJ, author Cecil Hicks (pg 999) attributes the introduction of European honey bees into North America to the Jamestown settlement in 1622.  While this dovetails nicely with his story about a Virginia beekeepers guild, it is factually incorrect.  The Spanish settlement of Santa Elena in 1564 located in Port Royal Sound, South Carolina (on what is now the Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot) was the first introduction of European honey bees into North America.  This introduction occurred 68 years before anyone set foot in Jamestown. 

According to Timothy Drake of Clemson University, these honey bees spread approximately 200 miles to the north, south and inland via swarming before anyone set foot in Jamestown.  Most authors continue to attribute the introduction of honeybees to Jamestown erroneously.  Thank you for your consideration. 

Dr. Drake said, “Honey Bees had moved as far inland as Tennessee by the late 1700’s, so early settlers coming to the Piedmont of SC, and NC Mountains, did not have to take bees with them when they travelled westward from the coast or down the Great Wagon Road from Virginia. They just captured swarms from the bee trees and put them in bee gums made from hollow poplar and sweetgum logs.”

David E. Arnal, President
Beaufort-Jasper Beekeepers Association
Hilton Head Island, SC

Support Virginia Honey Bees: Apply for a New Honey Bee License Plate

Pittsylvania County Beekeepers Assoc. is sponsoring a “honey bee” license plate for Virginia drivers. The $10 special interest fee is being proposed to support apiculture in the Dept of Agriculture of VA. 450 prepaid license applications are needed to be considered in the state legislation. The plate design has been approved by DMV and our legislator is ready to present the plate for final approval.

To order plate:
Fill out the License Plate Application
Include $10 (or $20 for personalized plate).
(Make checks to Pittsylvania County Beekeepers Assoc. or PCBA)

Mail money/check with application to:
Russell East
455 E. Store Ln
Chatham, VA 24531

Money will be deposited into a special account as specified by DMV. Applications and money will be turned into the DMV when the total reaches 450 applicants.
For more information contact: Russell East, President PCBA (434) 251-6437 revrusty@gamewood.net

The Honey Wheel

A clarification of the Honey Wheel article in the November ABJ: The video of Amina Harris tasting honey is available free on YouTube.

The wheel, developed at the Mondavi Institute at UC Davis is for sale at: honey.ucdavis.edu/products.

M.E.A. McNeil


Letters to the Editor - December 2014


When to Feed Pollen Substitute

I must thank you for printing the interesting and instructive articles that Randy writes for the ABJ. When I think of all I have learned over the years, often facts casually mentioned. This article taught me that I should take closer note of the kind of jelly around the tiniest brood. I had wondered why sometimes the jelly was white, and sometimes not, and now I know. I will take much closer note of it in the future.

I’m always pleased that the timely research Randy does addresses questions beekeepers are really interested in. Keep those articles coming!!
Jeanne Hansen

Beekeeping Finance

Very little attention to beekeeping financials exist today in the beekeeping literature. The Financial Analysis Honey Production, Pollination and Queen Rearing Spreadsheets (David E. MacFawn, dmacfawn@aol.com ) have been used to analyze various bee operation scenarios to determine investment strategies. The spreadsheets give an insight into pricing strategy, overall operation profit, total investment outlay, individual product line cost and profit, and blended honey pricing and costs. The spreadsheet is pretax with the accounting tax information not included since everyone’s tax situation is different; it is a business planning tool. The Net Present Value (NPV) method is used to determine if your bee operation strategy will work and make you money. NPV is the standard that most United States corporations use in investment decisions.

Several generalities are illuminated with the spreadsheet. Local honey can command a higher price than generic honey. Honey of various types, such as sourwood, tupelo, or orange blossom, also can command a higher price than typical wild flower honey. Overall strategy to market your honey is to push the upper price limit with your honey prices to determine what exactly your upper price point is, then back off a bit to retain your sales. Set your honey prices based on the market rate, not cost, then determine what your profit margin is based on your cost. Customers are also more willing to purchase a product at a lower price than a higher price; such as a $2.00 two ounce container rather than an $11.00 pint or $17.00 quart container. You can also make higher profit margins from smaller quantities than larger quantities.

When starting out, locate your hives as close to your house as possible to minimize travel time and cost. Generally around 11-15 hives is the break-even point to start having out-yards profitably. Locate your out-yards approximately five miles from each other to minimize travel expense with five miles being the general maximum distance that foragers will travel. There is a trade-off between how many colonies an out-yard will support and the travel cost. You want to have as many colonies in an out-yard as possible due to travel cost but not so many that the area cannot support the number of colonies. Usually 15-20 colonies is the maximum that I want in an out-yard since this is the maximum one person can typically work comfortably at one time.

h up to 10-15 colonies you can make money off of one 40 pound per hive nectar flow if you minimize travel and extracting equipment. Up to the 10-15 colony range it is usually cheaper to pay someone else to extract your honey rather than investing $800 or so in extracting equipment. This 10-15 colony number is lower if you produce more than approximately one medium super per flow. Maybe your bee club has an extractor and equipment that you can use. Total extracting equipment investment decision is dependent on your labor rate and equipment cost. Invest in your bees and woodenware first prior to investing in a lot of extracting equipment or a big building.

Generally, a honey operation needs to produce approximately around 100-120 pounds of honey per hive a year or more to make money commercially, if solely producing honey. This may be multiple nectar flows. This will reduce the equipment investment cost per pound of honey. However, it is dependent on the travel cost and the selling product mix. It is tough to make a profit only selling barrels of honey retail ($1600 - $1700 per barrel). You need pollination revenue, queen and / or NUC revenue, and / or selling lower honey quantities than barrels. However, as always, it is dependent on one’s particular operation and product mix.

The small honey producer should sell retail whenever possible. You will typically lose money or break even at best, selling at wholesale prices. The product prices should be market based and this spreadsheet will tell you if you are making a profit and what it is based on your selling price. Colony survival rate impacts your overall honey production profitability greatly. Also, the honey yield per colony per nectar flow also impacts the operation’s profitability.

Generally, there is a trade-off between producing honey and renting out your colonies for pollination. It depends on the per colony honey yield, the per colony pollination rental rate, and distance traveled. If you are lucky and pollinating certain crops, you may be able to produce a super of honey. A beekeeper may consider doing both honey production and pollination. This is especially so as to not be dependent on one source of income. Also, it is cheaper per hive to transport a “full load,” of hives than a partial load. This may be eight to ten colonies or more in a pickup (depends on if you want to stack them).

The Spreadsheet also highlights that if you are able to make a large investment up front, you can spread you equipment costs over a longer production time frame and increase your Net Present Value (NPV). This is especially true if you invest in extracting equipment or a honey house.

You also have the option to pay yourself a salary or a lump sum at the end of year. If you pay help during the year, then you probably would want to include that salary. Paying yourself a salary will give you a more realistic pricing structure, profit margin and costs than a lump sum at the end of the year.

Yes, you can make money with bees, but you need to make your investment decisions judiciously. A small operator needs to invest in bees and woodenware first without investing a lot in extracting equipment or building. Minimize your travel costs and set up your operation optimally from the beginning. Utilize that garage or existing building that you may have.

Enjoy your endeavor and make money also.

David E. MacFawn
205 Ridgecreek Drive
Lexington, SC 29072

Beekeeping in the Mediterranean from  Antiquity to the Present October 9 – 11, Syros Island, Greece

The Eva Crane Trust in conjunction with the Chamber of the Cyclades and the Hellenic Agricultural Organization (DEMETER) organized this first beekeeping symposium in Hermoupolis, which is on the capital of the 24 islands that make up the Cyclades. The two-day symposium actually took place in the Council chamber which held upwards of 100 delegates. However, by the magic of cctv, a further 45 people took part through live links to seven other islands in the group.

The eastern Mediterranean is rich in the history of beekeeping and the first day was given over to looking at this rich heritage. After the opening addresses by governmental and local dignitaries, the day was devoted to an overview of this history. Richard Jones set the stage by recounting Eva Crane’s own work in the area which formed important parts of her seminal texts: Archaeology of Beekeeping (Duckworth, 1983) and The World History of Beekeeping and Honey Hunting (Duckworth, 1999). This was followed by Professor Mazer of Israel who described the great archaeological find of an apiary of 100+ hives dated to 3500 BCE at Tel Rehov. The oldest example of commercial beekeeping yet discovered.

Ancient Egyptian beekeeping was covered by Alaskan beekeeper and world traveller, Stephen Petersen. Professor Gene Kritsky from the USA continued his quest for the perfect hive by looking at ...


Letters to the Editor - November 2014


Forager Marking Devices for Kids

This summer the kids and I spent hours foraging in the garden for watermelon and tomatoes, and watched countless pollinators in action. Watching honey bee foragers led the kids to ask me lots of questions. “Does this bee on the cucumber flower return here tomorrow?” “Do the bees on the sunflowers forage on the zinnias, too?”  “Have all of our hives found the pumpkin blossoms?”  I thought that it would be best to let our foraging bees answer the kids’ questions. I taught our kids to mark foragers in the garden!

I modified an old, wooden queen cage and turned it into a plunger-style marking device with a honey lure, using basic tools. The method of using the forager marking device (FMD) is easy for a child to understand.  We placed the open FMD in the garden where bees were foraging. Bees could enter and exit and gorge themselves on honey all day. When we went to the garden, we checked the lures. If a bee was inside, the kids plunged her gently upward to close the entrance, marked her through the screen on the thorax, plunged her down until she dried and was full of honey and then, safely opened the entrance and tracked her flight direction back to the colony.

With the holidays fast approaching, I am planning to gift FMD’s and non-toxic paint pens to family and friends. This little contraption really does need explanation, so I made double sided, printable instruction books that are easy to understand. Homemade gifts are so cool. We are proud to be entertaining and educating our children in the garden and wanted to help others do the same.  Enjoy!

Sue Hulsman

Bees Seeking Water During a Heat wave

It’s 108 degrees in our backyard. This is a photo of the honey bees coming to the water dish where all the creatures come for water on these hot days. There are often dozens (hundreds ?) at any given time. The squirrels and cats don’t seem to mind.

John Poer


A catnip plant took over one of my flower beds. It was attractive to honey bees and they worked it in June and July.

Robert Williams
London, KY


Letters to the Editor - October 2014


Colony Collapse 20 Years Ago

During rainy days this summer, I’ve been sorting through 31 years of files, reports and correspondence in order to recycle the paper and/or save and scan documents for historical records. Much of the content in the file cabinets consists of letters and reports that were written before the computer age. In one of the drawers I found a forgotten and significant letter written to Dr. Hachiro Shimanuki, Lab Leader at the USDA-ARS Beltsville Bee Lab.

The letter was written in part to thank both him and Dave Knox, Bee Lab entomologist for processing brood and adult bee samples for viral analysis. The letter also described a phenomenon that I had never seen before among beekeeping operations and a situation update regarding the operation the samples originated from. Unrelated to the issue, the correspondence also included data comparing tracheal mite infestations of Yugo, Buckfast and Italian honey bee stocks.

Following are excerpts from the letter to Shim written on Oct. 17, 1994:

“September 14, 1994 - 2 apiary locations (40 and 24 hives) with 1,000’s of bees on the ground resembling a pesticide kill, however, not all of the colonies were affected (approximately ¼). Many young “hive bees” observed walking from affected colonies unable to fly…The affected hives were still actively foraging with field bees bringing in pollen from goldenrod and aster. The young bees walking from the hives had ‘tremors’ or a ‘shaky’, ‘shivering’ behavior. In general, the majority of the bees died just in front or within 10 feet of hives. The crawling bees often weakly fluttered their wings resembling symptoms of what was observed during the late 1980’s when many tracheal mite infested hives were dying off during winter and early spring in Maine. The hives had large populations with 6 plus frames of brood and a super of honey when this behavior began. Varroa was found within worker and drone cells. When this ‘colony collapse’ was first observed, about 6 of 40 apiary locations were affected.”

“October 14, 1994- Revisited apiaries with die-off. The crawling behavior nearly stopped…Live colonies are now down to about 2-3 frames of bees and brood, lots of honey and frames of dead brood (chilled or otherwise)…During the last month, 20 additional colonies died out in the two apiary locations….About four apiaries were moved to a staging yard during the last month. These hives have dwindled far worse than the hives not moved. Of the 200 colonies staged, I think mortality will exceed 50% by the time they reach Georgia (Thanksgiving)….Things look pretty grim….Since our initial conversation concerning this matter, Roy has reported a similar situation with his last load in northern Maine….During the week of October 3rd I visited a southern Maine operation of 100+/- colonies. Colony collapse was evident (i.e. empty hives, spotty brood, lots of honey) but no dead or dying adults in front of hives. These hives appeared to have absconded.”

Within the letter to Dr. Shimanuki, I used the term “colony collapse”, first in parenthesis since I had no other way to describe what I was observing. We now know that the symptoms described in the September 14th and October 14th narratives concerning Norm and Roy’s operations were due to acute paralysis virus and Kashmir bee virus activated and vectored by Varroa (ABJ-May & Oct issues 1995). However, the symptoms concerning the colony collapse within the southern Maine apiary checked on October 3rd were very different. No bees (dead or alive) were present. Sound familiar?

For the record, the neonicotinoid Admire (imidacloprid) was registered in Maine for use on potatoes in 1994 in lieu of GMO (Bt) potatoes due to market pressure. It was applied to potato acreage in 1995. The letter to Dr. Shimanuki in 1994 accurately describes the existence of the CCD syndrome formerly called parasitic mite syndrome (PMS) before wide-spread use of the neonic insecticide class.

Tony Jadczak,
Maine State Apiarist

About Cell Size, Varroa Control and a “Fatal Error”

More than 20 years ago, Erickson et al.1,2 suggested that reducing the size of the brood cells of the European honey bee could help in controlling the development of varroa mite populations. This claim was developed and discussed among beekeepers, including in the American Bee Journal.3,4,5 As cornerstones of their approach, the proponents invoke two major arguments. Firstly they postulate that cell size was smaller before the general use of wax foundation and, secondly, that a “fatal” error occurred around 1930 when a new method (the square approach used by Baudoux, a Belgian researcher) replaced the traditional “rhombus” approach for estimating comb cell density. As a consequence, they suggest that beekeepers should undertake “regression” programs in order to keep their bees under, according to them, more natural conditions. They embed their ideas in the tempting view that honeybee colonies become more efficient at detecting mites, more rigorous in their hygienic behavior and, if not resistant, at least tolerant to varroa infestations. Their arguments were convincing enough to persuade the beekeeping equipment industry to produce and market wax foundation and artificial comb with a smaller cell size, as well as to convince scientists to conduct their own controlled studies in order to assess the effectiveness of cell size in mite control programs.

When I first heard of this theory in the fall of 2012, I was also taken in by it and rapidly became convinced that I had found a way to overcome colony losses. I then contacted our beekeeping authorities (who are deeply involved in developing organic control methods) and asked them why they were not supporting the small cell approach. They answered that the scientific evidence was not yet convincing enough to steer beekeepers in that direction. They also shared their collection of publications on the subject. I therefore read in detail the methods developed by the proponents of small cells, as well as the publications of the scientific community on the topic. At the same time, I prepared to undertake my own “regression” program for the following spring.

But over and over again, I came up against the “fatal error” argument. I could not understand how two measuring methods based on plane geometrical figures could yield different cell densities. I then started to make my own measurements: as theory predicts, I found identical results with either the square or the rhombus approach! In the meantime, I also discovered that some authors6,7 challenged the view that cell sizes had been smaller in the past. In addition, evidence from scientific studies was far from sustaining the small cell theory.8

Finally, I understood that the “fatal error” was an act of the proponents of the small cell theory themselves: when they transformed cell densities, allegedly measured using the rhombic approach, into modern figures using the square method, they considered that a rhombus of basis 1dm had the same area as a square of basis 1dm (cf. Figure 1). I also found that the rhombus approach has never been used as a standard in the past and that most historical data were reported as cell widths and not as cell densities. There was therefore no need to transform historical data in order to compare them with modern cell width measurements. In addition, an extensive review of historical data clearly confirms that cell densities were not smaller before the introduction of wax foundation.

Ironically, an opposite controversy on cell size arose around 1935, with the claim that bees became smaller following the introduction of wax foundation! According to Honegger10, Mehring, who invented wax foundation around 1857, designed his first wax mill on the basis of his own measurement, namely 18 cells/dm, i.e. a cell size of 5.55 mm and a density of 750 cells/dm2. Later on, some European producers of wax foundation turned to smaller cells and much higher cell densities (e.g. 920 cells/dm2, corresponding to a cell width of 5.0 mm, in Belgium before Baudoux’s work). This might explain why wax mills from the beginning of the 20th century correspond to small
cell sizes.

In conclusion, the findings of this study, published in greater detail in a recent issue of the Journal of Apicultural Research11, clearly show that two major arguments of the proponents of the small cell approach are not supported by the facts. Firstly, historical data indicate that cells were not smaller before the introduction of wax foundation. Secondly, if any “fatal error” occurred, it was rather at...


Letters to the Editor - September 2014


National Honey Board Announces Availability of 2014 National Honey Month Press Kits

Firestone, Colo., July 16, 2014 –The National Honey Board (NHB) is pleased to announce that again this year,  they will be providing press kits to the honey industry in order to promote September as National Honey Month. September has been recognized as National Honey Month in an effort to celebrate this all-natural wonder and its many benefits. The press kit, intended for delivery to local media, will be available at no cost to beekeepers throughout the United States.

The 2014 press kit features information on the benefits of honey, a variety of honey recipes, a 30 Days of Honey one-page handout which encourages consumption of honey throughout the month, as well as the NHB’s newest and most popular honey brochures that showcase honey’s versatility. All the resources included in the press kit are perfect for use by editors and journalists preparing honey features and news stories.

The press kits will be made available in early August and may be requested by calling Andrea Brening at the NHB office (800-553-7162), or by sending an email to Andrea@nhb.org.
The National Honey Board is an industry-funded agriculture promotion group that works to educate consumers about the benefits and uses for honey and honey products through research, marketing and promotional programs.

Jessica Schindler
National Honey Board

September Cover Painting

I do have prints of all my bee images. Most of them are in my eBay store. I didn’t post them all to my website because they are very small and not Limited Edition Prints. They are signed though. Please do refer readers to my website (www.robys.com); there is a menu button on the main page on the left side that they can choose that is my eBay store link. My website has only the Limited Edition Prints listed there. I’ll give you the link to my “bee” page on my eBay store so you can see what I’m talking about: http://stores.ebay.com/Roby-Baers-Fine-Art-And-Prints/Bees-/_i.html?_fsub=294869219&_sid=4807169&_trksid=p4634.c0.m322

Roby & Rich Baer

Bayer Commercial?

Why would you want to print a free advertisement for Bayer?

The article in News Notes by Bayer Project Manager, Becky Langer, (July 2014) may as well be a Bayer commercial. The beekeeper has wonderful success on space provided by a grower of corn, soybeans, mums and hay. We all get the implication that the bees are doing well among crops coated with Bayer systemic poison. You have allowed this commercial to share space with truly important news from USDA and NCSU.  Do you really think that Bayer propaganda should share space with our research authorities?

If you are willing to print private advertisement as news, I would like to start providing you with articles to advertise my beekeeping business.  I’m sure I can create a “feel good” article to promote my products and services on a monthly basis for you.

Donald P. Studinski


Letters to the Editor - August 2014


Beautiful Beehives

I was so pleased to see the June issue of American Bee Journal with a beautifully painted hive on the cover.  When I travel in Europe I like to visit other beekeepers and I noticed that so many of their hives were painted in pretty pastel colors or designed to look like small houses or had interesting hive roofs. I thought this was a good idea. I decided to create a beautiful beehive roof that looked like ones I had seen in Paris. But how?

I remembered an old friend who was the metals conservator for the Park Service. He was immediately interested in the challenge of designing and building a cover. Because he is a beekeeper, he knew the best way to build a roof that worked. The photo attached is our version of a beautiful beehive. It complements our urban perennial garden. It has a copper roof handmade by Bart Rogers, who is shown in the second photo building the skeleton for the hexagonal hive cover.

I think decorating their beehives is starting to be a trend with urban American beekeepers. In addition to being aesthetically pleasing to us, we think it helps the neighbors accept our bees by making the hives beautiful to look at.

If other beekeepers are interested in having one or more of our hive covers, my website is: beautifulbeehives.com

Nansy Mathews

For the Birds!
In early May, I placed a bait hive under one of my trees, the same location where I had scout bees checking it out two years ago.

The bait hive is on top of a six foot ladder. It is a medium hive box with enclosed top, and bottom with a one-inch entrance hole. I baited it with three old drawn out combs, and a cotton ball with a few drops of lemongrass oil (a honey bee attractant that simulates the Nasonov pheromone).

I check the bait hive periodically to see if there are interested scout bees. Today, June 8, I noticed a bird flying away from the bait hive. Curious, I put my ear to the box, and heard baby birds chirping inside. Fortunately, my hives have not swarmed, and found another home since my bait hive was already occupied.

Ross Englehart
Dayton, Maryland


Letters to the Editor - July 2014


July Cover Picture

This is the first in a series of 6 paintings depicting beekeeping​ work in the apiary. This will also be made into a limited edition 40x24 inch signed poster. A poster will be sent to every state agriculture department helping to highlight the importance of beekeepers and their diminishing numbers.

Mirald Cake, the artist, is the son of a beekeeper. He came to this country at age 13 in 2000 with his family from Albania.  His father, a beekeeper in Albania, wanted a better life for his children and was granted a visa to immigrate to the US. As you know, beekeeping is a family business. Mirald spent many days as a young boy assisting his father in the fields. His art is influenced by that environment.

Not speaking English, his father, Behar Cake, supported the family by taking maintenance & cleaning jobs around Clearwater Florida. His mother, Luisa, a nurse in Albania, worked here as a hotel maid. The children learned English within a year and became straight A students. They all became US citizens.

My wife, then the executive housekeeper at the Adams Mark Hotel in Clearwater, became friends of the family during Luisa’s time there as a hotel maid. My wife helped her to learn English and took an interest in Mirald’s drawing abilities and gave him a painting kit as a Christmas present. Six years later my wife drove Mirald to the prestigious Ringling College of Art & Design in Sarasota for an interview. Four years ago he graduated. His father’s secondary income as a beekeeper helped Mirald through college.

Mirald sees his father as his hero and beekeeping is his father’s passion. This series of six paintings will depict the beekeeper in that mode. I have added some links about Mirald and his art.

Please consider his art for a cover of your Journal. And a story about his family’s beekeeping journeys in life in the same issue.

Links about Mirald Cake:



A google on his name will bring up more results

Charles Barocas
Seminole, FL

Supering Hives

I would like to respond to the recent “Letters to the Editor/Bee Forage Network Developed, May, 2014.” First, I would like to acknowledge that using various websites for beekeeping endeavors are extremely valuable, and there are hundreds if not thousands of good ones out there. Furthermore, I would encourage new and old beekeepers alike to take advantage of them. However, now I must get to my point. This article seemed to suggest that all new beekeepers need to do is just run to their computer, type in the website, and determine which day to start putting on supers for their bees to fill up. This computer-dependent mentality is detrimental to learning about honeybees and their habits. We need to use computers and websites as tools to help us, but rely on working with the bees after opening up the colony for observations in order to make decisions as to what the colony needs.
At the risk of getting too elementary for many of the ABJ readers, I think somebody needs to point out that we need to get back to the basics. During my first year of working with bees, I learned that the way to determine when to super a colony was to open up the colony and remove one of the brood frames. You could look at it to see if the workers were putting in nectar into the cells right after the new workers emerged and before the queen had a chance to lay more eggs in the cells. This process is called “plugging out the brood nest with honey.” Then, turn this frame 90 degrees from its original position and lightly move the frame up and down without shaking the frame too hard. If drops of nectar fell out onto the tops of the other frames, then the honey flow (actually nectar flow in which the nectar is changed to honey by the bees) was on. If you wanted further proof, you could taste one of these drops. If it was sweet (which is practically always the case), then it is nectar. Thick honey will never fall out of the frames during this check. At this point, you can add  honey supers. There are other ways to check for a honey flow: past years – even though there are differences in different years, bee flight, and white wax either seen as burr comb on the top bars or as the comb surface as it is capped. However, as anyone can surmise, most of these activities actually involve opening the hive and inspecting the bees, not sitting behind a computer. Furthermore, if your hive swarmed, then this would have a great effect on how much honey your hive could collect and how many supers a beekeeper would need to add.
I think that all beekeepers, especially new ones, need to understand that the way to learn about bees is through experience in front of an open hive. Sure I have heard, and it does have merit, that opening a hive does disturb the bees. But to be successful, you need to learn firsthand. Open the hive and make each time a learning experience.  As my teacher and major professor, Dr. Alfred Dietz, told me on many occasions. “Don’t worry about it; if you do something wrong the bees will let you know.”

Mickey Anderson
Dallas, GA

“Treatment-Free Beekeeping”
by Les Crowder

I, too, have been a beekeeper for 40 years, a state bee inspector, etc. etc. I have watched beekeeping and agriculture go through many changes. One of these is IPM, integrated pest management. IPM has adopted many of the practices of organic farming, inasmuch as many pests can be controlled with mechanical and biological means. When these methods are successful, one need not resort to chemicals.
However, IPM is a continuum, which responds directly to pest levels. If the method used is not working, one goes to the next level. For example, if you have mice in your house, IPM would start with mechanical and biological methods like mouse traps and cats. If that doesn’t work, you might go to rat bait. If that failed, you may have to tent the house. What you would not do is give up and live with a rodent infestation, or abandon the house.
Many of the treatment-free advocates are idealists. Idealism too exists on a continuum. At it simplest, it is the belief in a better world. But often it slides toward ideology. Fervent ideologies tend to attract people who want simple answers to hard problems. Just as IPM aims to be flexible and responsive to real world situations, one also can have an integrated attitude toward knowledge which is flexible, responsive and avoids ideology. Because ideology slides toward fanaticism.

Peter Loring Borst
Beers Settlement, NY

Playing with the Winter Sun — Solarizing Hives to Reduce Winter Losses

The following information may be of interest to beekeepers living in zone 6 or colder, where the rate of winter kill is high.
We know honeybee colonies can take the cold weather as long as they have a good population, plenty of food inside the hive, are free of serious disease and have a dry cavity. However, we see colonies entering winter in apparently good condition, dwindling or even dying in late winter. The long confined life during winter may favor the development of health problems and the queen may fail or die of age or illness, when supersedure cannot take place. But a dead colony, with food inside the hive, in late winter, may also be the consequence of insufficient natural warming breaks during the long cold periods, when the colony turned weak. This further explains why the rate of winter losses gets higher with the latitude. Let me make this point clearer:
We know the bees adapt to cold weather by  ....


 Letters to the Editor - June 2014



June Cover Picture

I thought you might like to use these pictures in your magazine. I am a loyal reader. The artist’s name is Jill Sanders. She lives in Knoxville, TN.

I’ve attached a full sized picture of the hive that is 4MB. If you use it for the cover, I thought this might have the higher resolution you would need/want.

I own the hive, but Jill painted it for me. She is a great artist, and I’m sure she would be thrilled to see the picture on the cover.

Jill’s website is jsandersart.com. Her Facebook page is Jill Sanders Art. It would be great if you would mention these in the magazine so she could get some traffic from it.

I went to school from kindergarten through 12th grade with Jill. She is a class act. I got the idea to have her paint one of my beehives when I saw what an excellent job she did painting a rain barrel for a local charity.

Doug Carnathan
Maryville, TN

Pollen Storage

I suddenly became aware recently of how the honey bee stores pollen.
As one can see, there are two different positions shown. For the pellets lying on the sides, the different layers can be identified and one can count the number of trips required to make one pellet. When the end view is shown, one can observe the hexagonal shape.
Perhaps others have made these observations, but I have never seen such pictures before.

Lawrence A. DuBose
Carol Stream, Illinois

Change Management - Save Bees

The exact number of people who have bees in Iowa, and other states, is unknown but maybe Iowa’s State Apiarist, Andy Joseph may have an estimated figure.

Within that number are a few that are qualified beekeepers. They have earned that distinction by managing honey bee colonies to survive Iowa’s rigorous winters with a minimum of loss. It is being proved even with more difficulties in beekeeping.

After the initial start of getting colonies organized, which requires the feeding of sugar syrup, they managed colonies to produce their own food and eliminated the feeding of syrup. Most colonies are provided two brood chambers for producing bees and storing honey for the months of dearth when no source of nectar or pollen is available.

Even though queen excluders are used above the two brood chambers, 99 percent of colonies will need additional full combs of honey for winter. Those surplus combs of honey can be produced by allowing some colonies to fill the full depth hive body with honey that can be reserved for the purpose of bringing all colonies designed to winter up to weight.

There will be some smaller amounts of honey to process and sold, BUT it will eliminate the need to make arrangements, work and expense of feeding sugar syrup.

Fair colonies can be produced by feeding sugar syrup, BUT not the healthiest of bees. Honey is a perfect diet for bees. It produces healthy bees which can better stand the environment of today’s contamination.

Now about finding the proper balance of stores for the colonies to be wintered with a quick view of the combs from the top, it appears they are full of honey. Upon closer examination, it is found that some of the combs are only partly filled. Counting each comb would help, but would be a lot of work and time consuming. The hefting of each hive is quite inadequate. A completely filled upper chamber with honey would assure that there was enough honey. But, three combs of open cells need to be placed in the upper chamber in September. That is where bees prefer to cluster on the open cell combs.

The only way to make sure there is the right amount of honey stores is the use of a scale. This doesn’t mean placing every hive on a platform scale needlessly. The scale pictured is the only sure way to make sure that there is the correct amount of stores, not too much or too little.

All hives should be placed on 2” X 4” pieces, 42 inches long. Either the flat way or made into H frames. This allows the scale hook to fit firmly under the side of the
bottom board.

Lift each side of each hive and add the total. That gives you the near exact weight of the hive. If the total weight is 100 pounds, then three combs may be needed to bring the hive up to needed weight. In Central Iowa it was found we needed each hive to weigh 115 to 120 pounds. After a couple of years, you will have determined the wieght needed to last until some sources of nectar and pollen are available in the late April.

Colonies having the proper amount of stores and given all other provisions for winter, including Styrofoam fit in the inner cover and wrapped in black asphalt paper will be in condition that brood equalization can provide extra combs of brood and bees for making up a few lost colonies OR increasing numbers. We found that during the daylight hours it was 30 degrees warmer under the asphalt paper than the outside temperature.

Enough of this done throughout the Midwest would eliminate the need to import the thousands of packaged bees that are now being used for replacements. Maybe the day will return when queens would again be available from California or the South in early April—the desirable time to make up additional colonies. There should be enough honey left for all single brood chamber colonies after equalizing the brood.

Now for a scale: All that is needed is two pieces of 1” X 8” board for a base. Cross the grains to prevent splitting. Two pieces of 2” X 2”: One 24” the other 32” Fasten the 24” upright to the base with 4 pieces of metal strap 12” long. Bend down 2” to bolt onto the base using all 1/4 inch bolts. Four 1/4 inch bolts hold the strap to the upright piece. Cut the top of the upright piece at a 45 degree angle. Fasten the lever to the upright about 8 inches from the end with a 5 inch strap hinge. At the end of the lever place an eye bolt which will hold the swivel snap attached to the scale. The scale is the expensive part, but well worth it. It takes only about 30 seconds to weigh each hive which tells you a lot. One that weighs 160 pounds has too much honey and upon checking, you will find too little brood in September and will be short of bees that will be needed to survive the winter.

Beekeepers fashion all kinds of reasons, or excuses, for extreme losses of colonies, especially during the winter. The latest has been the extremely cold winter. Cold has little or no effect on bees as long as they have plenty of honey. The major problem is neglect and mismanagement. A little special attention paid each colony takes very little time, but pays big dividends.

Glen Stanley
Iowa State Apiarist, emeritus
908 N. Highway 69
Huxley, IA 50124

Hive Boxes Make Handy Tool Shelves

I’ve been busy building bee equipment this spring, and like many other beekeepers, I have been using hive boxes for shelves and worktables, among other things. I have photos of several examples. When using tools, I dislike keeping them on the ground. Mostly because I am over six feet tall, and am too lazy to continually bend over. Hive boxes can be arranged to almost any height, and are readily available. When my younger daughter Michelle headed off to college, she packed along several hive boxes, and used them as shelves and a TV stand. They make a nice worktable in the beeyards, and with careful placement, can be used as a step to get up to the truck bed. Although not OSHA approved, I have heard that they could be used to reach a light bulb for changing, or to see inside the top of the honey settling tank. I thought that this could help other beekeepers with ideas for making life easier.

Andy Hemken, Beekeeper
Big Bend, Wisconsin

Letters to the Editor - May 2014


Hungry Bees

I’ve attached two versions of a photograph that I took today while working in our backyard apiary in Oak Ridge, TN. I’ve been feeding our bees a little extra carbohydrate in the form of a semi-solid sugar candy that I refer to as semi-fondant. While inspecting the hives I noted the workers in this hive busily siphoning up the semi-fondant while shredding the paper plate it was placed on as they go. Notice the shredded plate to the left, but especially to the right of center of the banner formatted image.

Fred Sloop
Buzzy Bee Apiary
Oak Ridge, TN

Beekeepers Must  Move Bees

Last fall the EPA published a new pesticide label originally for the foliar application of four neonicotinoid pesticides. By December, the EPA stated this new pesticide label language would be “harmonized” across all chemistries. The label was meant to protect pollinators.
The Pollinator Stewardship Council with the Bee Industry, sought a response from EPA’s Assistant Administrator clarifying our concerns with the new label. The Pollinator Stewardship Council received an answer from EPA, and Mr. Dave Hackenberg, representing the National Honey Bee Advisory Board, received a different letter from EPA (even though both groups along with AHPA and ABF signed the original letter).

The Office of Investigations for EPA stated in a letter to the Pollinator Stewardship Council, they will review our concerns and “a determination will be made as to the most appropriate course of action.” In the response to Mr. Hackenberg, Assistant Administrator Jones clarifies that contrary to the December EPA webinar this new label language is for the “four products formulated with the four nitroguanidine neonicotinoid chemicals (clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) as well as two recently registered as active ingredients: tolfenpyrad and cyantraniliprole.” These last two pesticides are an addition to the original label adjustments presented August 15, 2013 by EPA for foliar applied neonics only. As to the concerns beekeepers expressed about the five conditions listed on the label past the “do not apply statement:” EPA stated to Mr. Hackenberg, “Both of the foregoing prohibitions, however, are subject to the exception listed in the “unless . . .” clause.” “. . . application would be legal if one of the five conditions is met . . .”

The bee industry has its answer: any harm that comes to a beekeeper’s managed colonies due to a foliar application of clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, tolfenpyrad, and cyantraniliprole is the responsibility of the beekeeper. If bees are damaged or die due to a foliar application of a those products during bloom, and the application was made based on one of the five conditions, the fault of bee deaths lies with the beekeeper. Beekeepers must move their bees. No clarification was provided by EPA on what constitutes notifying a beekeeper to move their bees, if a State has a voluntary apiary registry program, or for the loss of a honey crop or crop pollination if bees are to be moved. The cost of time, labor, and loss of honey crop will be shouldered by the beekeeper.

The Pollinator Stewardship Council has attached an analysis of the new pesticide label. While EPA has clarified the “conditions” will supercede the “do not apply” statement, the label still has undefined terms, features an icon that defies culturally accepted warnings, and native pollinators will continue to be harmed and killed. Again, the EPA now states the new label will only be required for foliar applications of clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and the two new products tolfenpyrad and cyantraniliprole.

The Pollinator Stewardship Council encourages beekeepers to document their costs due to moving bees in relation to this new label language for foliar applications of clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, tolfenpyrad, and cyantraniliprole. Also, document if and when you are notified to move your bees.

The Pollinator Stewardship Council is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to defend managed and native pollinators vital to a sustainable and affordable food supply from the adverse impact of pesticides. For more information about the Pollinator Stewardship Council visit www.pollinator

Note: From the EPA’s EFED Risk Assessment of 2013, page 4, Cyantraniliprole, IRAC group 28, “is a systemic, broad-spectrum insecticide that belongs to the diamide class of chemistry.”
Tolfenpyrad, IRAC group 21 “is a broad-spectrum pyrazole insecticide/miticide. It acts by impairing energy metabolism in the target pest . . . including cessation of movement, lack of fecundity, and eventual death of the pest.” (Page 3, EPA’s unconditional registration document for tolfenpyrad)

Michele Colopy
Program Director
Pollinator Stewardship Council, Inc.
P.O. Box 304
Perkinston, MS 39573

Bee Forage Network Developed

As a beekeeper for the past five years in Vermont, one of the most frequent questions I’ve been asked is “When do I super my hives?” Over the past several weeks I’ve been playing with a reporting tool that might help beekeepers, especially new beekeepers, learn when the time is right to super their hives.

The Bee Forage Network is a free service for Vermont beekeepers that graphically presents local blooming conditions of bee-friendly plants based on reports submitted by volunteer observers.

The site, available at BeeForage.com presents local forage conditions in a manner similar to pollen reports. Local observers - like weather spotters - can report flora in bloom and update the site from their smartphones or tablets in real time using a simple app that allows for the selection of regional forage plants. Reports can include photos and video to assist beekeepers in identifying plants in bloom. The mapped data is available for viewing online as it is entered. Participants can then elect to receive email or text alerts so they will know when certain plants are blooming in their area. Reports can be submitted anonymously or users can create a free site account which offers greater management control.

The Bee Forage Network was created in response to a question as to when beekeepers should place honey supers on their hives in the spring. The site aims to assist new beekeepers who have difficulty identifying when plants bloom during the course of the season. It is helpful to know when this occurs because beekeepers use this information to manage their hives.

The site was developed using the Open Source Ushahidi interactive crisis-mapping platform. “Ushahidi”, which means “testimony” in Swahili, was a website initially developed to map reports of violence in Kenya after the post-election fallout at the beginning of 2008. The Ushahidi platform is now being used worldwide in support of a variety of political and environmental issues.

While currently available for Vermont beekeepers, the site can easily be expanded to include data from other states if there is interest. Future plans call for weather overlays and integration with hive scales. In addition to being a teaching tool the Bee Forage Network could serve the historical record as a possible indicator of changing climate as the reporting database grows. It could also help promote the importance of maintaining forage for pollinators.

Greg Smela
Cornwall apiary
4740 Route 30
Cornwall, VT 05753
Ph: 802.458.0620
Email: info@beeforage.com

Hive Box Decorating Contest

Looking to add a touch of fun to your local beekeeping meetings? The Fort Bend County Beekeepers in Texas held a [bee] box decorating contest with great success. Kids, Teens and Adults all had a category and 23 entries were submitted. The club gave place ribbons, ‘Lil-Smoker” Trophies and gift certificates from Dadant and Brushy-Mountain to the Champions. Member Jack Richardson spearheaded the competition exclaiming, “There is so much talent and imagination in our club.” Beekeepers from age 7 to 70 participated and every member got one vote per category. “We gave everyone a red, a white and a blue poker chip to vote for their favorite in each of the three age divisions. You dropped your chip in the bag sitting inside the box you liked best”, said Jack. “Participation was terrific and everyone was wearing a smile!”

Sharon Moore
Fort Bend Beekeepers

Bee Venom Therapy Clinical Trials

We will be recruiting patients until July 2014.  Future news will likely come from our Chief Medical Officer, Anna Jakubowska M.D., MBA

Robert Brooks PhD,  COO, Apimeds

Apimeds Launches a Phase III Clinical Trial for Osteoarthritis and Its Standardized Honeybee Venom

On January 6th Apimeds began screening US patients at 15 clinical sites for osteoarthritis of the knee with its standardized honeybee venom Apitox. The clinical trial excludes beekeepers, but if you know someone interested, the sites that are actively recruiting patients can be found on www.clinicaltrials.gov/Apitox.All contact information about Apimeds, Inc and its vendors can be found on the government website.  The study will also enroll patients at sites in India for this clinical trial.

Apimeds is preparing a clinical trial with ...


Letters to the Editor - April 2014


April Cover Painting

I’ve titled the painting Golden Days. The painting is done on an old inner cover. My husband keeps bees and I’m a self taught artist. I love anything vintage, especially old trucks. My husband acquired that specific inner cover from an old beekeeper who had recently gotten out of it. When I saw it, I knew I wanted to paint a bee scene on it (that included an old Ford). The painting is available for sale for $100.
I do custom work at an affordable price and anyone can reach me at this email. My work can be viewed on my etsy shop at https://www.etsy.com/shop/Payntstar or on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/Payntstar.
For prices on prints, you can contact my business email: artbyclarissaburford@gmail.com.

Clarissa Burford
Port Allegany, PA

Starving Bee Sponges, Bee Aware of Triclosan!

Reference: Starving Bees!, pages 149-152, February, 2014 ABJ article.
Common kitchen sponges labeled “antibacterial” are likely to be impregnated with Triclosan, an antibacterial-antifungal ingredient with a known toxicity to fish, frogs and test mice. These antibacterial cellulose sponges should not be used in baggies for feeding sugar syrup to your bees as it is unknown whether or not it is toxic to them. Currently, the FDA believes it is safe for humans in its current use in cosmetics, hand soaps, household cleaning products, etc. to combat bacteria. However, it is reviewing new information on Triclosan and possible toxicity to humans.

A trip to any grocery store, (not a health food store), found it impossible for me to find sponges not labeled “antibacterial” although Triclosan was not listed on the label. I must assume it is Triclosan, as it is the cheapest and most commonly used antibacterial in such products.

So . . . a simple inexpensive solution to the antibacterial sponge problem is to use “grout” sponges found at any home improvement store near the masonry supplies. These are small celled usually polyester sponges that hold twice as much liquid as common kitchen sponges, (a plus for the feeding project). Use a utility knife to cut the super large sponge into smaller sizes to fit the baggie and continue on as I have instructed.

Thanks to Michael Jaross of Mt. Baker Beekeepers Association for bringing this to my attention.

T’Lee Sollenberger

Mississippi Bee Stewardship Program

I wanted to share with you the quick status of an ongoing effort here in Mississippi concerning the pollinator/pesticide issue.  

Many of you may know that Andy Whittington, our MFBF Environmental Programs Coordinator, has recently been appointed to serve on EPA’s Pesticide Policy Dialogue Committee.  Andy is representing the American Farm Bureau Federation in this position. 
In an effort to be proactive on this issue, Mississippi Farm Bureau® arranged several meetings with the Mississippi Beekeepers Association, the Mississippi Agricultural Aviation Association, the Mississippi Agricultural Consultants Association, the Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Mississippi State University Extension Service, and row crop farmers to develop a plan where all parties recognize the need to coexist together and outline some basic standards on how to achieve a cooperative relationship that minimizes any adverse effects to beekeepers and at the same time does not put a producer at risk of yield loss.   An additional component of the program is the creation of the “Bee Aware” flag (see attached image).   Our goal is for it to become so common place that you will never pass one on a turn row of a grower field where you don’t think about bees and producers will take precautions if preforming any activity that might be detrimental to hives.

Recently, a document and plan was adopted by all parties and will create a very important foundation for problem solving at the local level through education and stewardship.  Our next steps in this program are to develop a brochure/flyer/communication piece that we will promote to our beekeepers, row crop producers, and other stakeholders and begin this communication effort. 

Again, we simply wanted to make you aware of this effort. We will need your support in working with producers and industry to emphasize the importance of this program.  Hopefully this will be a successful effort that we can provide to EPA as a great example of the cooperation that can exist between beekeepers and farmers to better protect our bee population.

If you have any questions, feel free to contact us.

Justin Ferguson
Commodity Coord.- Cotton, Rice, & Soybeans
Regional Manager-Region One
MS Farm Bureau Federation

Teaching Beekeeping

As part of a biology class from Carroll University in nearby Waukesha, Wisconsin, I have been conducting a two-hour lecture on beekeeping biology, followed by an hour out in my backyard beeyard of around 70 beehives. I teach the students about honeybee biology and behavior, and give them an up-close look at the honeybees in the hive. I demonstrate the sting response of the honeybees, outlining the mechanism and the specifics. At the point of the sting on my forearm, the instructor snapped this photograph of her students, and the reaction is priceless. After two years of bringing her classes out to our operation, the instructor, Danielle Greer, and her husband, Andy, are now set to start two beehives of their own.

Andy Hemken the Bee Guy
Big Bend, Wisconsin

Beekeeper in Training

At four years old, Tommy Dotterweich is already a beekeeper in training. He often joins his mom at Marshy Point Nature Center in Baltimore MD, where she works as a naturalist. Together they care for the bees in the nature center’s apiary. Children and families visit Marshy Point to learn about honey bees and the important role they play in pollination. Tommy is eager to share his love of bees with visitors.

Pam Mattice
Tommy’s grandmother


Letters to the Editor - March 2014


Wrapped for Winter

North Liberty, Ind.-The thousands of honey bees in each of these hives can snuggle up thanks partly to warmth inducing black tar-paper wrappings on each hive helping them also to survive the winter.

Wrapping is just one action taken to sustain some 90% survival of my colonies the past two winters.

Here is a check-list of some other actions taken:

  • Insulating inside over the inner cover flush with 2” Styrofoam, cutting an air channel from the inner cover hole to the 3/8” x 3/4” opening at front of inner cover for ventilation.
  • Leaving ample stores of honey, using the three-deep hive body system (*) for food and early spring population build-up. No nutrition-short corn syrup or sugar water is necessary.
  • Breeding from our area’s survival stock. No imported stock from out of our area.
  • Avoiding use of chemicals.
  • Assuring in-hive water availability during the flight season.

Benefits of these efforts include far above average honey crops and hive survival, both exceptions to media horror stories of colony collapse.

(*)The year around three-deep hive body system, although expensive initially due to cost of 10-frame hive bodies and giving up a first time investment in honey not taken, is a practice perfected by Tim Ives, North Liberty beekeeper.

Dave Laney
North Liberty, IN

Beekeeping Among the Redwoods

I read with interest the article entitled “Beekeeping in the Shadow of the Redwoods” in the January issue of American Bee Journal. I lived for ten years in the Central Valley of California and the coast redwoods was my favorite place to go on short vacations. The redwood trees are awe-inspiring and one of God’s greatest creations.  My wife loves the ocean so there was something there for both of us.

I worked for Wenner Honey Farm during package season in 1979 to 1981. Clarence Wenner still had some queens from a race of bees obtained in the coast redwood country.  These bees were very black, somewhat ill tempered, very nervous and ran when you opened the hive, and prone to American foulbrood. That was their bad qualities.  These hives would shrink to an extremely small population for overwintering, but would grow explosively in the spring. They would regularly have a mother and daughter queen in the same hive. I can recall having a mother queen on one side of a frame and a daughter queen on the other side of the same frame. Clarence sold some of these queens and he said that they performed fantastically up in Alaska.

Four years ago, I was visited by a hobby beekeeper who lives in the Eureka area. He told me that he had caught some swarms that were much the same as the bees that Clarence Wenner had. He also said that he killed the queens because the overwintering population was so small that he thought that they were weak queens. So, probably these bees still exist. Though there was no mention of these bees in the article about Mr. Oostra, I thought that this information might be interesting. Perhaps Kees Oostra may run across these bees. They may be worth propagating and have something to contribute to the gene pool of bees in North America.  

Mike Johnston
Eaton, NY

Sweet Ride!

David Ellingson, Ortonville, Minnesota, shows off his 2013 Harley Street Glide, with a paint job designed by himself. The front and sides reflect a honey and beekeeping theme. Dave parked his motorcycle in the exhibit hall at the January American Beekeeping Federation convention in Baton Rouge.

How are the Bees Doing?

I, like many other new beekeepers, for some unknown reason during the winter months (here in Ohio) have an insatiable curiosity to know if the bees are still alive or if they have enough food to make it through the long, cold winter (it is -13F, as I write this letter). As a result, we often “crack” the hives to take a peek - often at the detriment of the bees - assuming, of course, they are still alive.  

My son suggested we assess the bees’ health using his Infrared (IR) camera using the logic that if the bees are alive, they would be clumped together producing heat which would show up on a thermal scan. The picture below showing our two hives (a rock atop each) clearly shows a clump of bees, which are producing heat (i.e., they are alive!) in each hive. No need to sneak a peek!  

The other apiary photo shows the six hives of our beekeeping instructor and mentor, Mike Pittman (and a thermal picture of Mike, as well). Unfortunately, only one of Mike’s six hives shows any sign of heat being generated by a living clump of bees. There is a slim chance that some of the five remaining “dark” hives may still have a clump of bees, whose heat did not register on the thermal camera, which may re-emerge in the spring, but the chances are slim indeed.

I encourage other curious beekeepers to keep their hives’ lids on and seek someone with an IR camera to determine if their bees are still alive during the long winter months.  Otherwise, endure the suffering of not knowing your bees’ health until, and if, they reemerge in the spring!

Jan Kinner
Kettering, OH

Letters to the Editor - February 2014

 “Plant These to Help Save Bees”

My name is Hannah Rosengren and I am writing to submit my illustration, “Plant These to Help Save Bees” for consideration to be printed in your upcoming February issue.
I am a recent graduate of Maine College of Art and am still residing and working on the coast of Casco Bay here in Maine. Reflecting back on my college work and deciding what to make since graduation, I realized I wanted to focus on pieces that were not just aesthetically appealing but also meaningful to me personally. My growing understanding of Colony Collapse Disorder, a love of botanical illustration and an interest in horticulture inspired this piece.

Originally I posted the piece on tumblr with little response, but was suddenly overwhelmed by a surge of thousands and thousands of shares along with requests for prints and even an email from Spain sending thanks and admiration. I’m very pleased that this issue is important to so many. I have since been making prints (in multiple languages) and have been looking for publications and venues to spread the word to. I found American Bee Journal and was fascinated by your history and knowledge base. I would love to be part of your next issue.

Hannah Rosengren

Survivor Stock from Feral Colonies?

I was reading through your December issue of ABJ when I came across the Letter to the Editor entitled “Test Yourself - Raising Queens from Survivor Stock.” The letter threw me back a little. Its main point (to keep track of the age of your queens, and don’t believe everything you hear about others saying they have the longest living queens), is well taken. However, you do have to realize the irony in the fact that the article enforced that others be skeptical when someone says they have the longest living queens . . . and then proceeds to tell others about how HE has the longest living queens. A little “pot and kettle” going on, all be it probably unintentional.

The main reason why I was taken back by the article, however, was because it talked about the use of “survivor stock” and “feral colonies.” I find this topic to be fraught with inaccuracies, in general, this article included. Survivor stock is not a defined term. All it means is that you have stock that has survived. All stock has survived, or it wouldn’t be there anymore. To say that it survived treatment free, or management free, maybe. But that’s not what Survivor stock indicates. Just that it has survived. It’s very misleading to represent your stock that way, at least when you are trying to promote your stock or your method of beekeeping. It’s about the same as calling a company “green.” Sure it’s green, probably greener than the neighboring company. But how green is it? Who knows. It’s promotional anyway.

Apart from the use of the term “survivor”, the author also appears to incorrectly, at least in my opinion, define feral colonies. The article, while it doesn’t directly say so, indicates that the source of his colonies are from cut outs and swarms that existed for “years” without any treatments or interventions from man. Not really true. Most studies that have been done on feral colonies have found they only live in one location for a year, sometimes a few, before they die out. A study in New Zealand watched, I believe, 12 feral colonies over the course of a year, that were identified by locals to have been at their location for over 10 years. One year after beginning to watch them, all 12 colonies had died. Seeley also tracked feral colonies in the forest outside Cornell University over an admittedly longer period of time, and found that between two observations, no colony occupied the same location more than once. Meaning every location that Seeley first recorded a colony at, was no longer alive when he returned.

And yet the myths of feral colonies living in trees for “decades” lives on. Why? It’s simple. Someone sees a bee colony living in a tree (usually with activity in the spring). If the colony dies that winter, that local wouldn’t know it until they didn’t see activity the next spring. By then, another swarm could easily move in. To the onlooker, it appears to be the same colony, so must still be alive, when in actuality that colony came from a newly issued swarm (i.e. not new). If a swarm doesn’t move into that tree one spring, and remains empty, would the person notice? Probably not, unless they were recording or doing a study on the tree (which I have yet to have found a non-beekeeper do).

So most of the time these feral colonies haven’t been “chemical free” or “treatment free” or “management free” for _____ years. They haven’t been anything free for _____ years as they haven’t existed that long (or worse, they keep dying in that location, showing they can’t “survive” anything). And where did those “feral” colonies come from? The managed hives right down the street. So why spend the time finding the “feral” colonies? Why not just cut out the middle man and split your own hives from current stock? Makes sense to me.
In the end, the author’s queens lived longer than the person he was comparing them to. Why? No one knows. Not you, not me, not the author. He can speculate as to the reason, and give (at least what I believe to be) an inaccurate cause and effect relationship for it. But in the end no one knows.

Justin Kay
Greensboro, NC

Streams of Gold

As an experiment, I snapped this picture with my extractor running at full speed. I was very pleased to get this shot of strands of honey flying across the gap between the frame’s top bars and the extractor wall. I thought some readers might like to see it too.

Anne Frey
Delanson, N

Letters to the Editor - January 2014


Build Your Own Label Holder

I have spent years positioning my rolls of labels on any surface that is handy, while bottling honey. Time spent orienting the labels the best I can, and constantly moving the rolls to keep them in the right position. No more.
Using materials that are readily available, I built a label holder over the course of several months. Sometimes things move slower when a project is not in the “front burner”.
Most of our label stock comes on 3'' rolls.  I used 2'' PVC pipe to form the upright and the rack itself. I put the upright in the vice and used a 2-3/8'' hole saw to better cut the curved cradle. The rack piece is about 10'' long, and holds several rolls of labels at a time. The rack is solvent welded to the upright. I cut several 2'' disks out of some scrap plastic in the workshop, and solvent welded them on each end. I raised these up about ¼'', so that the label rolls are easy to load and unload, but would stay on during use.
For the base, I picked up some scrap ¾'' PVC plate from our local plastic supply house. I cut this to a 10'' x 12'' size, rounded the corners, and routed a nice radius on the upper edge. I then used my 2-3/8'' hole saw to cut a hole in the center. The upright can then be solvent welded in place.  This can be painted to dress it up.
The label rack can be washed, and is very stable. We can pull off labels, and the unit doesn’t move. This can be built out of painted wood, but I wanted mine to be more food safe. I hope that this helps with your bottling efforts, and may give you some ideas on how you can do things in your operation.

Andy Hemken, Bee Guy

Oliver Articles

Since 1977 I have subscribed to the American Bee Journal without having missed a single issue. What has kept me such a steady subscriber is the quality of articles in your publication. Clearly the best of the articles is the series contributed by Randy Oliver. And some of his articles are worthy of regular reprinting in the ABJ, particularly the three-part Fat Bees which appeared six years ago. Mr Oliver should be encouraged to continue his contributions. This will help keep the ABJ truly “The Beekeeper’s Companion.”

William Winchester
Southwind Farm
Collinsville, OK

Daddy’s Little Beekeeper

While out of town on business this fall I asked my wife to have my 7-year old feed the bees. He suited up in my jacket and veil and went to work. My wife captured this image. Pretty cute; we thought we’d share.

Paul Nelson
Spencer, IA

Sustainability in Beekeeping

I really enjoyed the article “Sustainability in Beekeeping” by Lawrence Connor in the November, 2013 issue of the “American Bee Journal”, as I do all of Mr. Connor’s articles.
I have a question specially for Mr. Connor and generally for all the other beekeeping experts out their in the fields, “How does a small beekeeper who depends on package bees, usually from California, get survivor stock for their local area(s) so they can practice sustainable beekeeping?” It seems to me that my biggest challenge is getting that package through their first winter, that is not in sunny California!
I get most of the sustainable practices, but I struggle to get my packages to survive their first winter.
Is there a better way of doing this?
Thank you. I really enjoy the ABJ and its great articles.

Frank D Gunseor

Dr. Connor responds

Mr. Gunseor raises a question many beekeepers have been forced to address over the past few decades, since the introduction of parasitic mites and the widespread use of miticides to control them. While there have been programs that produce mite-tolerant stocks, they have not been the total answer for all beekeepers.
Regardless of where you obtain package bee colonies in the spring, you face the same facts of life of package bee production in the United States. First, there is an enormous demand for package bees each season, with tens of thousands of package bees going to individual states from a small number of producers. It seems the number of package bee producers is shrinking, while the demand is growing with the new flood of new beekeepers that have appeared over the past six or seven years.
Second, this demand is for packages early in the year, putting the producers under tremendous pressure to produce early queens. It is my opinion that most queen producers know how to produce a well-raised queen, but they fail to produce an adequate supply of vigorous drones containing a large number of viable sperm. The reasons for this are many: First, I do not think that these queen producers supply enough drones within the mating areas of the queen yards, either through lack of knowledge of how many drones it takes to mate with a queen, or their inability to produce early drones and sustain drone production throughout the season. This problem of a general drone shortage is increased by the absence of a large feral population of colonies, poor drone rearing conditions (cold weather in the South, rainy weather in California) and the pressure on these colonies to produce large numbers of worker bees for the packages. You cannot shake a colony for bees and expect drone production to be a maximum level. Nor can you expect two or three colonies at the end of a thousand-colony mating yard to produce adequate drones for mating.
Miticides are a fact of life of commercial beekeepers, yet there is very clear data showing the negative impact on drone production and viable sperm production. USDA and University studies show that certain miticides are hard on queen production, drone production and viable sperm production in hives. Drone larvae must be well fed with carbohydrates and pollen in order to form sperm. They cannot be exposed to many common miticides during this formative stage. Then, when the drone emerges from the cell, he must feed on pollen for the sperm to move from the testes to the seminal vesicles. High levels of high nutrient pollen are essential for good drone production.
To address Mr. Gunseor’s key question:  “How does a small beekeeper who depends on package bees, usually from California get survivor stock for their local area(s) so they can practice sustainable beekeeping.”
First, stop using package bees if you are able. While nucleus colonies (nucs) are not without their own set of problems, starting colonies with nuclei increases your success in getting at least one through the winter. Many beekeeping clubs address this concern head on by providing pairing of new beekeepers with existing members who are able to provide bees for a nucleus or two in the spring. They also are setting up local queen rearing operations. Unfortunately, these efforts are only successful in providing thousands of colonies per year, not the tens of thousands that are needed.
Second, as I outlined in my book Bee-sentials: A Field Guide (Connor and Muir, www.wicwas.com), keeping two hives provides a safety net for queen or bee failure in the other colony. This past summer I worked with a group of Western Michigan University undergraduates and we set up six nuclei colonies that quickly grew into booming colonies able to produce six nucleus colonies in the early summer. While not all were successful, the nuclei provided queens for two of the initial colonies when they experienced a queen loss (natural or human cause). This case for two and a half hives for every new beekeeper makes a great deal of sense, and I suggest new beekeepers let the bees keep most or all of the honey they produce their first season, although the WMU students harvested about 180 pounds from the six colonies. Beekeepers who used package bees in the area did not have this success. One could argue that the key difference was my role as an advisor-mentor to these students, but I would reply that we started out with very good nuclei colonies and that made all the difference. No amount of experience will undue the damage of a group of low-quality queens from a package bee producer.
Finding large numbers of mite-tolerant bees is a challenge. They are out there. Start with the USDA supported programs with the VSH and Russian queen programs. I plan to add Russian stock to my bees in 2014 and will buy these queens to make nuclei. I have used VSH and stock from Sue Cobey in the past, and with good results. Look at various hygienic stocks available to you in your area. I have all but given up on southern raised Italian stocks that have not been selected for mite resistance. They built the US beekeeping industry in the last century, but they are not the best bee for the 21st Century.
In year 2014 we will reach the 27 year mark of having Varroa destructor in the United States. We know the use of miticides has delayed the development of natural resistance in the largest group of managed colonies in the country—the commercial and semi-commercial beekeeping operations that must use the chemicals to keep their colonies alive so they can pollinate almonds and other crops. As I travel around North America I notice that in those areas where there are no commercial beekeepers and migratory pollination requirements, there seems to be an increase in the survival of bee colonies and less reliance on miticides.
This gives me hope that Nature will eventually solve some of our problems if we as an industry cannot. Yet there are methods commercial and semi-commercial beekeepers can employ to increase mite tolerance, starting with the use of only stocks with documented mite tolerance. Yet the dominant view in the country seems to be to use chemicals but keep switching from molecule to molecule to avoid resistance developing in the mites. We would all be better off if we concentrated on developing resistance in the bees themselves.
The beekeeping industry has a dependence on miticides. We have a drug problem and we need to rehabilitate. Like all drug treatment programs, it will not be easy.

Larry Connor, Ph.D