The Classroom archive

 The Classroom January 2016

by Jerry Hayes


Texas Apiary Inspection Service
By Mark Dykes
Chief Apiary Inspector
Texas Apiary Inspection Service
2475 TAMU
College Station, TX 77843-2475

Howdy from the Texas Apiary Inspection Service. We are based out of the Texas A&M University Entomology Department. I’m sure you are wondering why the state honey bee regulatory agency would be based out of a university—let me fill you in on the back story. Texas A&M University (TAMU) is the Land Grant Institution for the state. In 1901 the legislature of Texas established a honey bee education and research program based out of TAMU. From there a foulbrood inspection program was formed and in 1920 the state inspection service was organized. This partnership has continued now for 95 years and is going strong. One of the many benefits to this partnership is working closely with Dr. Juliana Rangel’s Honey Bee Lab ( on honey bee issues. And when I say close, I mean we are right next door to Dr. Rangel’s lab at the Janice and John G. Thomas Honey Bee Facility in beautiful College Station, Texas.

The primary duty of the Texas Apiary Inspection Service is to inspect and permit movement of honey bees in and out of Texas. Our inspection focus is on commercial migratory and honey production operations. We accomplish this through the tireless efforts of Bill Baxter, the assistant chief inspector, and Mary Reed. Together along with Linda Sebesta, administrative assistant and myself, Mark Dykes, chief inspector, we form the small but very productive Texas Apiary Inspection Service.

As is the case in other states, the number of small-scale and hobby operations is booming in Texas. In order to help serve this section of the industry the Texas Apiary Inspection Service provides educational talks to the many beekeeping clubs and at other bee-related events throughout the state. This year we also launched a new website we hope will be a valuable resource for all beekeepers ( We are also proud to announce that Texas now has a Master Beekeeper Program (! The program is administered through a partnership with Texas A&M Agrilife Research and Extension, the Texas Beekeepers Association, and Texas Apiary Inspection Service. In our first program in March, 68 beekeepers became Apprentice Master Beekeepers. The Texas Master Beekeeper Program is modeled after the Florida program created by Dr. Jamie Ellis.

Well, I hope this sheds a little light on what we do here at Texas Apiary Inspection Service. If you have any questions or a good bee joke, please feel free to email us at and as always, keep on keeping those wonderful bees.

Q Coating Plastic Foundation

Hi Jerry,
I heard rumors that you coat your plastic foundation with beeswax.  How do you do it?  Does it help induce the bees to draw out comb?

Jim M.


Who told you that?☺ I melt beeswax outside in a safe location on an electric hotplate. I have collected scrap beeswax from my hives, burr comb, etc. and in a crude double boiler I made out of two different size empty food cans, I melt it. I use a paint brush to apply it to uncoated or lightly coated plastic foundation.

Bees are attracted, comb is pulled/drawn from applied beeswax, so they don't have to produce as much themselves. I just try to get a 'coating ' over whole surface, not too thick and not too thin but just right....Goldilocks principle.☺

It works well. Don't burn yourself or scorch or set the beeswax on fire or your house, garage, shed, tent, yurt, etc!

Q Anti-biotic Use? Misuse

I know you shouldn’t treat without verifying, but I have put commercially available product that contains an antibiotic on all my hives recently, mainly because it has been several years since I have applied any treatment for foulbrood. Our apiary inspector said last year he found very few cases of foulbrood in the state.

Bob Limbird


Hey Bob,
Lots of people do it and let me share with you some flaws in this plan if I may. Are you taking antibiotics now because you are afraid of getting strep throat sometime in the future? If so, then do you think it will stop this infection in you in a week, a month or next year? If there is no harmful bacteria that your body isn't already protecting you from, how would you taking antibiotics now help you in the future? It wouldn’t, would it?

You would be wasting your money, stressing your body and killing the good bacteria in your body that are critical in your food digestion and in protecting you from harmful bacteria getting a foothold. Antibiotic----anti=against. biotic=life. Antibiotics kill all bacteria, both good and bad. Have you ever taken antibiotics and become of victim of diarrhea? That is because most of our digestion takes place in ...


 The Classroom December 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Upper Entrance

Jerry you advocate top hive entrances. What configuration do you recommend? What do they look like?

Beekeeper Dick

Hey Dick,
A long, long time ago on a planet far, far away this is where it all started with the article referenced below. There is a diagram. Not sure 100% of the diagram is valid 30 years later. Not wrong just too prescriptive. But, take a look.

I have attached a photo I just took of a colony in my backyard. I am not nearly as fancy as I was in 1985. I just prop up the super above the excluder with a stick. Kind of sloppy looking, but bees have not complained.

Let me know what you think. Thanks. Jerry

Queen Excluder or Honey Excluder? - › Point of View › Jerry Hayes

American Bee Journal – August, 1985, pgs. 564-567. By G. W. HAYES, JR. Dadant & Sons, Inc., Wayland, Michigan.

Makes good sense Jerry – So do you recommend closing the bottom completely or leaving a small opening?

What I do now is to leave a small opening a couple of inches wide so that trash and the dead bees can be more easily dragged out and let the colony self-select. It is kind of interesting in that they make that adjustment decision as the colony grows.

Q Kitty Litter for Hive MoistureAbsorption?

I am in my second year of beekeeping. Like many people, I started with a swarm that landed in my yard. I knew nothing about bees. Living in the liberal state of Oregon, I rushed from the very rainy coast to Portland and bought a Warre hive. Although I now have three Langstroth hives in addition to the Warre, I did learn a lot from the Warre experience. (By the way, it was a small, late swarm that not only made it through the winter, but grew very large, very fast in the spring and swarmed twice in three weeks). Anyway I really like “quilt boxes” and garden roofs which cover the quilt box. Last year I filled it with cedar shavings. I am planning on building quilt boxes for all of my hives.

My question is this: I have read that kitty litter can be made of lots of different things, but most often clay. The unscented ones have no ingredients listed but clay. I was thinking of filling a couple of my husband’s white cotton tube socks with kitty litter and using that in the quilt boxes. What do you think? It sure would make it easy to trade them out if they got very damp. Thanks so much for all that you do for us and for the bees!

Claire Moody
Tillamook, Oregon

Well, you certainly have had a learning experience and lots of out-of-main-stream equipment. That is how one learns many times and the memories will stick.

Honey bees, because of eating honey that is 18% moisture or below and their own metabolism to process this honey, create moisture as a by-product of this metabolism. In winter the cluster of bees is warm (about 93 F.) and everything else around them is whatever the outside temperature is (ambient). You have probably puffed your warm breath on a cold glass window in winter and seen that the moisture in your breath condenses on the glass. Same thing with honey bees, they breathe out warm moist air and it can condense on the inside of the hive if not vented out while still warm. The home you live in is the same. Homes are designed to vent out the warm moist air because if it is trapped in your house, it can promote mold and fungus growth--not good for your health.

Think of a honey bee colony like a chimney. Warm moist air rises and then hits the top and can't get out and the moisture condenses on the cold lid. Many people think that they need to soak up and collect this moisture with various absorbent materials. Then, you end up with soggy, damp or wet stuff in the hive to stress the colony and facilitate mold and fungus growth.

The easiest way is to make the hive an actual chimney and prop up a corner of the lid with a small pencil diameter stick or a real short segment of a pencil. Lifting up the corner of the lid allows the moist air to exit and removes it from the colony and voilà no moisture build up naturally or unnaturally with socks stuffed with kitty litter or quilt stuff or ....whatever. I hope this helps.

Q Solar Hive

Love your short answers to very good questions. I learn the most from your section, so writing to you.

A question about the write-up in the August 2015 American Bee Journal regarding the article on the ThermoSolar Hive. From the info I can glean, they are not yet available for sale in the US and patent protected. True or are there any ways to get one presently?

Second question: From the info, it appears as if the brood is in the top box - next to the top solar heater. Is this a requirement of treatment? If so, would it make sense to put the honey supers below the brood chamber and a queen excluder between the top brood box and the lower honey supers?

A little info only gets one's hopes up. I understand that it is breaking news, but would love to have ACTIONABLE suggestions. Any help would be appreciated.

Keeper of Bees,
Dave Mentzer

This is what I think I know Dave. The optimum temperature of the 'brood nest' is approx. 93 F – 95 F. The ThermoSolar Hive directions indicates raising the temp to 116.6 F in the colony for a couple of hours. Honey Bee ADULTS can tolerate temps up to 122 F for very short periods of time before they die. Honey bee larvae and pupae can be negatively affected by heat and drying out. They are very sensitive to desiccation. Honey bee cells have their own micro-climate and get humidity from the larval food as it contributes to the cell and brood nest humidity of the optimum 50%-60% range.

Varroa mites can be negatively affected on ADULT honey bees exposed to temperature extremes. Exposing the larvae and pupae to the elevated temperatures is precarious because of desiccation (drying out) and direct heat. Heat, when used as a Varroa control strategy, is really no different than essential oils or miticides in that they are all toxic stressors that hope to kill a little bug (varroa) on a big bug (honey bee). So, don’t think heat is benign because it is something we are familiar with. Heat stress can kill you and me as well if we get too hot or become dehydrated for too long. And, if you have mowed your lawn in summer when it is 95 F for just a couple of hours, it ...


 The Classroom November 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Beekeeping is a Sticky Subject

As many people say... we love your article, and read it first! My question comes as a fairly new beekeeper that's just bumped up to 6 hives. We are enjoying a productive honey crop and everything is getting quite sticky. So, the "hygienic queen bee" in me wants to know... how do I clean my suit, gloves, and hive tools of honey, propolis, etc.? I don't want to ruin the leather and hot soapy water doesn't cut it on the hive tool. There must be some way to deal with it...other than buying new, or trying to be even more careful.

K lazy D Ranch, Star Valley, WY


You made me smile, because as a new beekeeper I had the same thoughts and concerns about cleanliness and being sanitary, so I didn’t expose my bees to some disease or something from another colony. The only readily available and safe chemical that will dissolve propolis is alcohol, although some beekeepers say they have used finger nail polish remover with good results. I had the same problem with gloves early on too, so don’t feel like the Lone Ranger.

There is not much you can do other than 1) learn to work the colonies without gloves or 2) buy some new ones if they get too gunked up. It is good for the economy!
You can place your hive tool in your burning smoker, one end at a time, before you extinguish it after working your hives. The heat/fire will burn off sticky material and sterilize, and then you can also scrape it off semi-easily.

For bee suits sticky with honey, a regular wash cycle (remove zippered veil and wash suit in warm water only) will do. Check the washing instructions label on your particular suit.
If you have a lot of honey and wax on your gloves and hive tools, you can leave them outside hanging some place and the bees will clean them off pretty well. (But, this is not a good idea if you have been working hives that might have foulbrood.)

This is all a lot easier if you learn to work without gloves…… which comes with time.

Let me share a Jerry story with you. A long time ago when I went back to school to learn about beekeeping at Ohio State University I was in a hive that had AFB (American Foulbrood) with my gloves on. I was a poor student, so didn’t want to buy more gloves, but didn’t know how to sterilize them. So, I thought—well they sterilize everything else in the autoclave, a high heat, and steam unit. I put my leather gloves in with other stuff the lab was going to sterilize and thought voila I have figured it out. I came back the next day and as they opened the autoclave up, I saw the gloves. The gauntlet tops were nice and white and clean and regular size, nothing had changed. But when I saw the glove part with all the fingers, it had dramatically changed! All the leather parts had shrunken to the point that it looked like a miniature cluster of bananas or little pickles or Vienna sausages. Same look as a shrunken head you see on the Discovery channel! It was so bizarre and cool that I didn’t mind buying a new pair of gloves. So, that is my leather glove story.

Q Young Beekeeper

My name is Caleb and I am 13. I have had bees for two years now. Last winter my bees didn’t make it and in 2015 I installed a new set of bees. I have two questions: In early June I put on a shallow super in hope of a fall harvest. I checked my hive recently and the bees haven’t even pulled out the wax. Do you know why? My second question is: How do I use a propolis trap to harvest propolis?

Thank you,


Hey Caleb, sorry for the problems. First, let me chastise you in hopefully a helpful parental way. So, you are telling me you haven't checked the colony for three months? If that is true, that means you didn't catch this early and you didn't feed them to encourage them to draw out the foundation, and you don't know if they became queenless or what the level of Varroa mites is or was, were diseases a factor and on and on…

Sounds like neglect, as you were a beehaver not a beekeeper. Do you belong to any local beekeeping club or know of any experienced beekeepers who can help you? You need a teacher, a mentor Caleb.

The short answer is it seems as though the colony didn't have the nutritional resources needed to make wax and build comb so the queen could lay and raise bees to build the colony population. This, in turn, would have allowed the colony to forage on flowers, bring in more nectar and pollen, raise more bees and store food for winter. And we haven't even talked about treating for varroa mites in late summer/early fall.

I think you crashed before you even took off. Look up and join your local honey bee association and go and ask for help. Too late now, but there is always next year. Hang in there!

By the way, propolis traps are placed on top of the brood chamber (in place of an inner cover). The bees don’t like open spaces, so they fill them in with propolis. Then, you take out the propolized mat and freeze it. After being frozen, place the plastic mat in a bag and knock off the propolis by banging it on a hard surface.

Q African Bees

My question is: Why are feral honey bees surviving so well in Baja? The background to this question is that around 10 years ago my wife and I sea-kayaked around San Jose Island in the Sea of Cortez. In one campsite we encountered a lot of honey bees. They were in our kayaks and on our water bottles. We asked friends, who have a house on nearby Coyote Island about them, and they explained that they were "killer bees" and had just shown up a year or so earlier, and were after water. This observation begs a number of questions. For one, how did they get there? The closest crossing is about 3 miles to the Baja Peninsula. And, of course, what do they do for water in one of the driest places on earth?

This last May our little group of (r)aging river runners, returned to paddle about 115 miles from Punta Coyote to Escondido. I can't remember if they were everywhere we camped, but we definitely found ...


The Classroom October 2015

by Jerry Hayes



I wonder if you have any thoughts on the insanity of current queen prices? This morning I was pricing around and it seems we're up to 40 - 45 dollars for a single queen. This is madness! Don't tell me how much a good queen is worth - I've had bees 22 years and know all about excellent queens. But these "gold" queens come with no guarantees and carry a high probability of failure within a few months.

Here's my message to queen breeders: I'm not paying those outrageous prices. I'll be growing my own queens next summer.

There, I've said my piece and you don't have to reply to it!

Henry Yoder
Tremonton, UT

I would like to respond if you don’t mind Henry. Some of the most lucrative business is with hobby beekeepers who pay ‘retail’ without blinking an eye. These are folks who believe the advertising and respond to key words like Italian, Carniolan, VSH, Russian, and Yellow. There are some queens that have certain traits that can be passed on to improve colony health and vigor. Most of these queens are okay, but there is no guarantee of what the buyer is really getting or a product “Warranty” as such. When a virgin queen mates with 20+ drones in an open-mating area that attracts drones from miles away, it is almost impossible to control 100% the drone population. This means that traits are diluted or disappear quickly. I think you are right. But, this is a business and in business it is supply and demand. If there is real or imagined demand and real or imagined shortages or some other feature that makes a product appear valuable, then the business will charge what the market will absorb.

No different than all the commercials we see on TV, along the roadside, the pop-up ads on the web, etc. Advertising is trying to drive sales. Queen producers are business people and it is what it is.

On the other side of the coin, don’t forget that queen producers also have seen their costs of production skyrocket in recent years with higher winter losses and coping with problems like small hive beetles in the South. Their shipping and handling costs have jumped by 200% in some cases.

There are some states that have a queen rearing project for survivor queens for that area or region. I think rearing local queens is a great idea if you can persuade all the beekeepers in a 10-mile radius to not bring in queens that look like they will be fun to have that produce drones that circumvent the goal of rearing local survivor stock.

Q How Did Eggs Get There?

I have a puzzler I'm hoping you can help me with. In 2013 one of my package queens started out well with a good laying pattern here in northern Minnesota. By the middle of June though, she had disappeared from the hive and I could find no eggs or larvae in the double deep hive bodies. Our main flow (basswood) was just a couple weeks away and I didn't think trying to raise or purchase a new queen was going to help the hive population in time. So, I decided to let them make what honey they might. Imagine my surprise when I checked that hive in the middle of August to find frame after frame of brood. WOW. I'm not sure I've ever had a queen with that good of a laying pattern. I concluded I must have missed seeing an egg somewhere in spite of searching carefully.

The hive was strong going into the winter and survived. Last year (2014) I decided to try my hand at grafting some queens from her. I had some success and this year have three of her daughters doing well in population and honey production. This summer (2015) my mystery queen from 2013 started out laying fairly well and then, while I was abroad for a speaking engagement, the hive swarmed. When I returned the landowner reported seeing a swarm and I discovered two frames, each having several capped swarm cells. I was disappointed when I inspected the hive a week and a half later and could find no queen, no eggs, no larvae. The hive was single story and about 5/8 full of bees. I wasn't sure what to do with them as all my other hives were doing quite well. In my indecision I just left it alone. Then, July 15, I checked that hive again and was astonished to find a lot of eggs and capped brood.

I am certainly not an expert, but have had quite a bit of experience with 15-20 hives. I ponder the question---is it possible for bees to rob an egg from an adjacent hive, bring it home and make a queen out of it? Or, are there other possibilities besides me simply missing seeing eggs?

I enjoy reading "The Classroom" month after month with your insights and answers. I would appreciate any light you might shed on my situation. Thank you.


It only takes one larva in one remote place or in an obscure awkward position to be found and selected as a potential queen. And there are lots of places like this in a bee hive. Then, if the beekeeper is not looking regularly, they can develop into full cells and a virgin is produced in 15-17 days. Pretty quick. For a beekeeper, experienced or not, seeing a virgin or a virgin that has only partially completed the mating process is tough. They are small and indistinct and if there is a decent colony population or she is under, around or in back of what you are looking at, you will miss her on the first try. I have for sure….

Honey bees do not have fine motor control over mouth parts. Their mouth parts are designed for molding, smoothing, manipulating beeswax into comb--not so good at fine grasping and positioning with sensitivity. A honey bee egg is shaped like a tiny grain of rice with one end that is sticky (glue). The honey bee egg, when laid, is placed with the sticky end down in a vertical position. The egg is not designed to be plucked and pulled up to detach the sticky end and be moved by clumsy worker bees. This would be assuming the workers actually know that this is a survival mechanism and they need to get an egg from someplace else and safely carry, transport and re-position it sticky end down, in the bottom of an empty cell. Then, other workers would have to select it as a potential queen that deserves to be fed royal jelly. Sounds cool but doesn’t happen. If this were the case, then queen excluders would not work. Honey bee workers do eat eggs and larvae, but don’t move them.

Q Wax Moths

A few days ago, I went to the area in which I store my extra equipment. When I uncovered my stack of honey supers and brood chambers full of drawn comb frames, I discovered they were infested by wax moths. I use the plastic Pierco frames, so they were not really damaged beyond repair.

I must have found them just in time, because the wooden boxes seemed to be in pretty good shape too, at least I couldn't detect any damage.

A couple of questions: What is the black coffee ground looking substance on top of the frames? I've read that the frames should be frozen to kill any remaining eggs or larvae. I'm thinking about power washing and maybe a bleach solution for the woodenware.

My problem is, it's the middle of July and this is apparently when they are most active. So, after I've done extensive cleaning and frozen the frames etc., what is to keep the moths from attacking this equipment again? Any other suggestions for cleaning the equipment?

Thank you,
Randy E Ruark

Wax moths are looking for brood combs because there is ‘nutrition’ in the form of larval skins left behind from developing brood. There is little or no ‘nutrition’ in pure beeswax. That is why wax moths don’t do much damage to comb used exclusively for honey storage in supers, etc.
Answers to questions:

  1) Black stuff you asked about is wax moth larvae feces (poop).
  2) The flaw in your plan was you provided them, the wax moth, food, location and the comfy dark conditions to start a wax moth nursery. Wax moth adults and larvae do not like bright light. I would simply take the boxes and frames outside and expose them to natural sunlight that can penetrate into the boxes. You may want to take out the frames/foundation temporarily and expose them to sunlight to discourage the adults from selecting them as home. Natural UV from the sun helps eliminate fungal and bacterial residue. No need to use chemicals, freezers, bleach or power washers, even though they do work if it just makes you feel better. Or, you can put the boxes and frames/foundation in a stack with boxes stacked at 90 degree angles and place a shop light on top and bottom to illuminate the interior. You miss the disinfecting quality of UV from the sun though. Sunshine is intense and a great tool.
  3) You can protect them like this for as long as you want or until temps drop outside. If you want to reuse the equipment, then brush off the easier wax moth webbing and loose feces and let the bees do the final cleaning in the hive. Badly damaged combs should be replaced with new foundation.

Great lesson though. Hang in there!


I am Tommy Patrick, member of the North Carolina Beekeepers Association and Harnett County Beekeepers Association. I enjoy your Classroom very much. I found this assassin bug attacking a hive beetle. What do you think? ......


The Classroom September 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Florida Apiary Inspection Program
My name is David Westervelt and I am the Chief of the Apiary Inspection Section of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services’ (FDACS) Division of Plant Industries (DPI).  Florida’s apiary industry is flourishing, with a rapidly growing number of “backyard” beekeepers.  Many commercial beekeepers are expanding their operations to meet vital pollination services throughout the nation, particularly in states like California in February for Almonds, and then the eastern United States in late April, early May for Apples, Blueberries, Cranberries, and other row crops.

I assumed the Chief’s position in 2012 for the Florida Apiary Inspection program with just over 1600 registered beekeepers managing 340,000+ colonies of bees in the state. Now in 2015 there are closer to 3,900 registered beekeepers with approximately 460,000 colonies in the state. FDACS/Apiary Inspection is staffed with 10 full time and 3 part time inspectors, with one part time laboratory technician conducting Africanized honey bee certification using Fast African Bee Identification System (FABIS), and Universal System for Detecting Africanization through Identification (USDA-ID), 1 administrative secretary; Cathy DeWeese compiling all the data, paper work, electronic reports, phone calls, and trying to handle the staggering numbers of new registrations and inspections. Nearing 29 years of service with FDACS, Mrs. DeWeese has witnessed many changes with the Florida Apiary Inspection program from the first Varroa mite and Small Hive Beetle to the Top-bar and Flow Hives.  She will be turning over the reins of this well established nationally acknowledged Apiary Inspection Program on Nov. 30, 2015 to enjoy the great Florida weather.

Getting all the new backyard beekeepers in compliance under Florida’s Honey Bee laws Chapter 586, Florida Administrative Code, requires all beekeepers be registered and inspected.  If they manage bees on residential land, they must comply with Best Management Requirements for Maintaining European Honey Bee Colonies on Non-agricultural Lands (BMR). This requires the apiary inspector to do a site visit to confirm that the apiary location complies with the requirements of the BMR, and to answer any questions the new beekeepers have. The average new beekeeper’s registration – inspection requires over 4 ½ hours of the inspector’s time to complete all the required paperwork, drive time, and answer questions. Alternately, a commercial beekeeper’s inspection with a few hundred, or a couple thousand colonies might take the same amount of time. Beekeepers shipping colonies out of state must have the colonies certified, meeting the other states' requirements before shipping. Most of Apiary’s inspection team are relatively new, having less than 10 years of service with FDACS. Donald (Freddy) Howard is the “pillar” of Florida’s Apiary Inspection nearing 30 years of service. Freddy has inspected/certified over 1 million colonies, accumulating over a million miles on a multitude of state vehicles, and with his true southern gentle nature, Freddy is able to calm most any dispute, even if it’s a backyard beekeeper disputing placement of his colony, or a beekeeper’s neighbor wanting all bees removed because everyone in their house is highly allergic to bees!  Freddy is the FDACS example of excellence in Consumer Service.

Continuing Education Is Important
The combined efforts of FDACS’ Apiary Section and University of Florida-Institute of Food and Agricultural Services’(UF/IFAS) Honey Bee Research and Extension Laboratory and affiliated county Extension offices, combined with the quality of their bee-related education programs throughout the state, are important to the continued expansion of the beekeeping industry. Experts from the FDACS-DPI Apiary Section participate in the enormously popular University of Florida Bee College, which provides training annually for novice and experienced beekeepers alike. The college is held annually in Marineland, Florida. Go to www.UF for more information. 

Similarly, the UF Master Beekeeper Program, held in conjunction with the event, trains and educates beekeepers who, in turn, receive public service credits by teaching the public about the importance of honey bees and their pollination services. This year the program had its first beekeepers accomplish the task of reaching the rank of Master Craftsman, requiring more than five years of curriculum, obtaining the previous three ranks in the course, and countless performance hours of public speaking. They are Master Craftsman Robert (Rob) Horsburgh (FDACS) and Robert Lorge (Bear Creek, Wis.).

More than 300 Master Beekeeper students across the state/country have promoted this important message, reaching over four million people. The development of an informed population of beekeepers has resulted in the formation of more than 40 local organizations affiliated with the statewide Florida State Beekeepers Association (FSBA). The FSBA has historically been a strong voice for the state’s apiary industry and is a major lobbying force on its behalf, promoting legislation such as the Florida Honey Standard.

Keeping Florida Safe
Florida has also made progress against the invasive Africanized Honey Bee (AHB) through requiring queen breeders to purchases queen stock from outside the AHB area or to have the mother line certified European bees, and they should follow the Best Management Practices (BMP’s) for maintaining European honey bees (EHB), as should residential and commercial beekeepers. Florida’s AHB lab certifies samples from throughout the state/country. 

What Future Do I See For the Industry?

Looking at the last 40+ years in beekeeping I would have to say the beekeeping industry has been changing since the introduction of the Tracheal and Varroa mites.  Beekeepers have turned to using treatments that before would have caused shivers up the spines of every beekeeper, using insecticides in a bee hive…. now for most commercial beekeeper it’s the norm.  Previously, the only thing beekeepers did was treat colonies with an antibiotic for European and American Foulbrood (EHB – AFB).  The bee industry has had more new problems in the last 20 years than in all the history of commercial beekeeping—Africanized honey bees, small hive beetles, Nosema ceranae, a growing varroa mite problem and associated newly discovered viruses and pathogens. And, there are new threats on the horizon—Tropilaelaps mites, Giant Asian Hornets and large hive beetles. The industry has changed, what was a Mom and Pop operation has now become a commercial business, supporting not just one family but a full workforce. Large commercial beekeepers are being acquired by other larger agricultural businesses, combining multiple components of agriculture into one vast company or coop.  Businesses are starting to create educational programs to supply the workforce in every aspect from the field labor to the technician helping to take the guess work out of beekeeping. Using modern technology helps boost production both from the beekeeper and honey bee (automated extractors, hive lifting devises, selecting for specific genes resistant to mites and test kits that allow you to analyze for pathogens in the field. Soon beekeepers will be able to walk up to a colony using an app on their smart phone to diagnose honey bee abnormalities.

Thanks for this wonderful opportunity to tell you a little bit about the Florida Apiary Inspection Service.


Q It Is Waaaay Too Hot

We enjoy your Q&A section each month. It is the first thing my wife and I read. We are “rookies” at this new exciting hobby, backyard beekeeping and we LOVE it.

Our Question is: When we experience very hot days (today 6/27/15 was 110 degrees), one of our two hives has a huge number of bees at the entrance, as well as nearly the entire front of the hive is covered in bees late in the day. I just checked again at 10:30 p.m. and there are still a very large quantity of bees outside the hive on the bottom board entrance, as well as covering much of the front of the hive for the third day in a row. Is this unusual? Are we doing something wrong or are we missing something? Our hives are very healthy, and we supply and change water supplies twice daily which the bees really love and use. We have seven different fresh water spots for them in our back yard.

Our second hive experiences a similar activity too, but not nearly as heavily as hive number one. Our second hive did experience this scenario earlier in the year, but it is not nearly as heavy now even with the heat. Our forecast here in Boise is for temperatures in the range 101 to 110 degrees for the next seven days and hopefully this current situation isn’t a harmful situation for our bees. Can you please shed some light on this matter for us?


The Adams


I will take “WE LOVE THE CLASSROOM” in capital letters any time! Thank you. Here’s a Jerry analogy: You live in Boise and it is going to be 110F. Like all of us, you live in a box (house) of some kind. You as a human have an optimum temperature range. 110F outside means 110F inside if not more because of the small window area in your box, little air exchange and couches, TVs, insulation, etc. 110F is just way too hot for humans to do much.  But, I assume you have air conditioning--probably set in the 70’s F range. I’ll bet your parents, when they were kids, and for sure your grandparents did not have AC in Boise or anywhere else in North America. Your grandparents probably had a porch with a swing and chairs outside where they went with family and friends to cool off in the summer. Everybody congregated outside and cooked outside on the charcoal grill and sipped cold lemonade and cut open a chilled watermelon. Even then, they like you had a cooling system based on sweat glands that kick in to secrete sweat which then evaporates to cool you down.

Your bees are in Boise, they live in a sealed box and their normal brood rearing chamber temp is about 93F. 110F is way too hot for them and can damage developing brood. So, like your ancestors they have to get outside and ...


 The Classroom August 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Guttation

I just read about something that comes from plants called “gutating or gootation” or something that is bad for honey bees if they drink it. Help me out here Jerry, what is it?


Hey Mark. Here is one of my analogies. You drink water and plants drink water. Your body needs to balance water needs and hydration in your body and plants need to balance water needs within themselves. Water is removed from your body in the process of respiration—you breathing in and out and there is ‘moisture’ (water) in your breath. Plants breathe too, kind of, as they passively exchange CO2 and oxygen through pores in their leaves called stomata and water vapor leaves in this process. But, what happens when you have had too much water or other liquid to drink? Your kidneys remove excess water and other by-products from your body and it goes to your bladder. After a while you have to excuse yourself from the table and go to the restroom, as this excess water liquid must be excreted.

Plants don’t have kidneys or bladders, but they do have to balance water in the plant so biological processes can continue and they don’t explode to release the water build up and damage themselves. They do this when moisture levels are too high and the roots are still absorbing water. This generally is at night by excreting excess water from the leaf tips or margins where there are water glands (hydathodes) that ooze this excess water that is under pressure from the roots absorbing more. You can see this many times first thing in the morning. It is not dew that is evenly spread over the leaf, but actual droplets on the leaf edge. When I got your question, I went out a looked at some blackberry bushes I have and took the photo you see. See the leaf edges and the droplets? This is called guttation. It usually disappears when the sun comes out and evaporates the excess water.

What you read was that if plants are exposed to toxins in the water then some of these toxins could be secreted as guttation droplets and if honey bees are thirsty and there is no other water available, then they could drink it and be affected negatively. And I suppose that is possible, but unlikely as the water droplets are small, temporary and evaporate generally when the sun comes out. Honey bees are imprinted on other water sources like the ditch, puddle, stream, lake or swimming pool. Exposure this way is minimal.

Q N0-Fun Colony

I have one hive of bees that I requeened this spring. They are hostile and try to sting every time I lift the cover. They were mean last year but not as bad. They are in shade in the afternoon. Would moving to full sun tame these boogers? I have one super at bottom because the queen was laying brood in it and the deep hive body on top of it, so I just added an excluder and another medium super for honey production. I pulled honey last week, even though we have been getting a lot of that Oklahoma and Texas rain here (18 inches in 3 weeks—now over for at least 5 days we hope). Anyway, I only had about 5 frames filled and when I returned that super after extracting—about 4 pm in western Arkansas, mostly overcast-thunderstorm approaching after a hot day—they ate me up with multiple stings on arms through my suit even with BeeQuick sprayed on my sleeves!
Got any ideas other than killing them off! I might smoke the heck out of them and split it up if there is abundant brood. I have a couple of hives that need a more productive queen.

In the South

Well Sir, having grumpy honey bees for whatever reason takes the fun out of it. Behavior and temperament are all genetically based which means what they inherited from Mom and Dad. Depending on where the virgin queen came from and who were the 20+ drones she mated with will determine what the workers look like and how they express behavioral characteristics.

You have Africanized Honey Bees (AHB) in some places in the South which can have influence on the queen and especially drone-mating influence on all their progeny. I would buy a mated queen(s) from someplace in the North and eliminate the existing queen.
Splitting them and making nucs is one way to temporarily demoralize them, but if the emergency queens produced have a grumpy AHB genetic past and they open mate with drones in a drone congregation area (DCA) that has AHB-influenced drones, then you are right back where you started or worse.


The queen came from a Southern state, supposed to be a Minnesota Hygienic. I have been using this company’s queens for last 3 years to try and get those varroa-resistant genetics started in my apiary. I haven’t gotten any from the North; do you have any suggestions? I am a hobbyist beekeeper and I fluctuate between 15-20 hives each year and don’t intend to have over 20-25 in the future, just retired last July and have a lot of things to finally do and finish.

African Bees have not taken over Arkansas yet and the last I heard several years ago were down in the SW corner of the state and several hundred miles to the west in Oklahoma. I may go the route you suggest if I locate a queen dealer who sells to the hobbyist.


Hey Bob,
If you are a country boy, you know a little about dogs, chickens, cattle, etc. Take a female pure bred hound in heat and turn her loose. I wonder what the puppies will look like and act like if she mated with a local dog. Same thing with Minnesota Hygienic or anything else. The DCA’s will have drones from every colony within a 5-10 mile area. Can’t maintain those genetics that way and do you know what other genetics she is bringing back? AHB doesn’t have to take over; they only have to influence at first. Gets worse later. Look in the American Bee Journal since there are lots of ads for queen breeders.


I hope all is well. I thought I would share some photos from a cutout Sonia and I did a week ago. There were two hives in this house and we left with 7 ½ five gallon buckets of honey. Two buckets were not capped, so we are feeding them back to the bees. We were able to save most of the brood and got it back into the hives. One of the queens did not make it and they have queen cells capped and it will be 15 days since the cutout on Thursday, so I expect to see new queens soon after that. We have been crushing comb and will have about 5 gallons of honey when we are all done.

Sonia said that she had fun and would do it again. The bee vac is the best tool ever.

Eric Hasek

Q Frame/Comb Rotation

I'm considering a way to kill two birds with one stone, but I'd like to check that I'm not about to do something that would, to stretch the metaphor--boomerang myself in the forehead!

Bird #1: Various sources suggest that brood comb be rotated out every three to five years, as it becomes contaminated with Miticides or agricultural pesticides, and as the cells get smaller because of cocoon residues.

Bird #2: I'm considering how to extract honey this year, and I'm tempted to use the "crush and strain" method - that would avoid the need to buy and store an extractor, or to rent time on one and lug it (or my honey supers) around. I have just one hive, so from the point of view of equipment and work required, that method seems most reasonable - but I don't like taking more wax than necessary from my bees, since they work so hard to make it, and I don't have that much use for the wax myself.

Stone: All of my hive boxes and frames, that is, both brood nest and honey supers, are the same size (deep); this was suggested by the beekeeping company that helped me start up, because it means that the parts are all interchangeable.

This makes sense for a tiny operation like mine, where I don't really have room to store extra equipment in multiple sizes.

Therefore, it occurred to me that it might make sense to "rotate" old brood comb up to the honey supers. This would meet the brood comb rotation goal (bird #1), and reduce the "wax cost" of the "crush and strain" extraction method since that wax was going to be removed anyway (bird #2).

I've been reading all kinds of bee books and journals for the past year, and I haven't yet come across anyone suggesting this. I think the likeliest reason is that most people are using smaller boxes for supers, and the least likely reason is that I am a genius for coming up with the idea and no one else has thought of it! Another possible reason, and this is the one that worries me, is that there's a good reason for not using old wax in honey supers, for example, because contaminants could migrate into the honey.

What is your opinion? Would it be a bad idea to rotate my old brood combs up to the honey supers before rotating them out?

Also, when they say to rotate that old stuff out, do they mean just the built-up comb, all traces of comb, the foundation, or everything including the frames? I was thinking I could just scrape off most of the wax, and let the bees clean up any residues before rebuilding comb on the same (plastic) foundation. But I don't know if that's good enough to meet the sanitary reasons for rotating the comb at all.

Thanks for your column - I'm learning a lot!

Anne Bennett
Montreal, Canada

Hello Anne,
You are thinking through all the birds and stone choices. Good job. You have already hit upon one reason not to use 'old' brood comb in honey supers—contaminants/residues of miticides and environmental toxins. The other reason is that ...

The Classroom July 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Pollination

Hopefully you can help us out, we need your expertise. Yesterday we were discussing the best way for beehive placement in fennel seed production in Chile. Fennel is an attractive crop to the bees. In the production manual it was mentioned:

 “The opening of the hives should be placed towards the crop. The hives should be placed downwind from the seed crop, because in this way the flower odors are picked up by the bees more easily and direct them to the crop. If the hives are placed upwind from the seed crop, the bees may feel more attracted to another source of flowers.”

Someone from the group commented that this might not be the best way to place the hives. The reasoning was the following: If you place the hives downwind from the crop with the opening of the hives towards the crop, the wind will cause a decrease in temperature. This decrease in temperature will make that the bees start flying (and pollinating) later, because they try to keep the temperature in the brood chamber high enough. Since fennel is an attractive crop, it is better to place the hives in such a way that the wind is not blowing in the opening of the hives.

What would you advise in this scenario?

Wietske van der Starre

Great question. I think the manual is certainly correct in that it is recognizing that one of the food (pollen and nectar) identification elements is odors produced by and in those flowers for foraging honey bees. One of the big challenges in all honey bee-related pollination activities is maximizing the number of foragers on a particular crop. Honey bees are generalist foragers and visit a variety and number of different pollen and nectar producing plants since no one flower has pollen that has all the 10 essential amino acids in it in the proper quantity and ratio that honey bees need. Keeping honey bee foragers specifically on a ‘mono’ crop in a field situation is impossible. The real question is not which way the wind is blowing, but what other flowering wild and agricultural crops are blooming at the same time as fennel in a 3-4 kilometer radius of the honey bee colonies that will attract X number of honey bee foragers and how can this be minimized to obtain as much focused visits by managed honey bee pollinators.

Wind and temperature are factors and can limit honey bee colony activity, but actual wind speed and solar gain are more important limiting factors. Hive entrances don’t matter much either. A honey bee hive is a sealed box and unless there are large cracks and spaces between the boxes or lid or bottom board, etc., trying to blow wind into a sealed colony is like trying to blow into an empty beer/soda bottle. You can’t do it because there is no place for the air to escape and facilitate air flow.

The technique used most often to maximize pollinator visits, if funds and resources are available, is to rotate managed honey bee colonies in and out of a crop area on a set schedule. Briefly, when new honey bee colonies are brought in from 4-5+ Kilometers away, the foragers are not ‘familiar’ with the location /site and will immediately forage on the nearest flowers. But, in a few days ‘scout foragers’ have explored the area and identified other nectar and pollen sources within the optimum 3-4 km foraging distance from the hive. Foragers are then diverted to these other sources. After 7-10 days these colonies are moved out past the 4-5+km distance and colonies that have been at this distant site are moved into the pollinating area. These new naïve foragers in the colonies once again visit the closest flowering plants and over time the scout foragers ID new food sources and foragers explore these new resources, moving away from the target plant. Then, the moving colonies in and out process is repeated which removes experienced foragers and brings in naïve foragers until the pollination event is deemed completed.

In the event that there are no other flowering resources in the 3-4 km flight range or that those resources are not as attractive as the target flowers, then fewer foragers will be recruited to go further out. Not all, but some.

As an example, stand next to a colony of honey bees on a good day and watch the foragers coming back and forth. My guess is that you will see different colors of pollen on their rear legs that they are bringing back to the colony as food. Different colors represent different flowers visited.

Q Monensin

We have a cattle farm and feed calves ground feed in the spring. Bees love the feed and work it continuously. The feed has Monensin added. Is this product harmful to bees? Brood? Honey?

Robin Alexander

This is an interesting question. Monensin, as you know, is an antibiotic that is used in ruminants (cows) to increase feed efficiency. Like any medication, if it is not used according to label directions, it can cause toxicity issues in cows and other animals it is labeled for. I was surprised to see it is toxic for horses. Seems to be relatively non-toxic to honey bees directly. I say directly because it doesn’t kill them, but I couldn’t find anything on how it affects their gut/digestive microbes. I am assuming (you know what happens when you assume) that it kills some of these organisms which help honey bees digest and utilize beebread and nectar/honey. This, in turn, may affect nutrition levels and ultimately health.

But how widespread is consumption within the hive and does it have colony effects or queen toxicity issues and does it make a difference? I did not see anything like that because it hasn’t been studied. If it were a problem, I would think it would have been reported, but it hasn’t. Is it good for them …probably not….is it bad for them…probably not in the short term. By short term, I am referring to this time of year (April) since it won’t be stored because all the nectar/honey is being used to build the colony. Larval diet issues could come up, but I think it is dosage and volume which I doubt would be a factor in this temporary case.
I guess I am most proud of you paying attention and reading labels and thinking forward. Good Job. Jerry

Q Smoky Comb Honey Sections

I am 15 years old and starting my 5th year of beekeeping. I am trying to specialize in comb honey, at least until my bee project gets big enough to justify a radial extractor. Last year I used 3 of my 9 overwintered colonies to produce over 200 round comb honey sections. To get the bees out of the filled comb honey supers I used a bee escape in the inner cover slot, which worked okay some of the time. I tried blowing out the bees with a cheap shop vac, but it wasn't strong enough. Unfortunately, I apparently used too much smoke when checking and harvesting some of the comb honey sections, and now I have a few dozen round comb honey sections which smell and taste smoky. They have been in the freezer since Labor Day weekend, and while the smoky aroma has lessened, it is still there.

So, my first question is whether there is any way to get the smoky smell or smoky flavor out of comb honey? The second question is: Do you think if I bought a rechargeable electric leaf blower it would be strong enough to blow bees out of the plastic frames of a Ross Rounds super?

Thank you in advance for any advice you can give me. I received The Classroom book as a gift and I have enjoyed it very much and I also enjoy reading your column in the American Bee Journal.

Joy Westercamp
Farmington, IA

Sounds like you are doing great Joy. You have been a beekeeper since you were 10 and that is fantastic! Good job. Don’t feel bashful in asking your questions. They have been asked since before you were born and there are not perfect robust answers, but let’s talk about it a bit. Smoky smell is tough. Beeswax is a ‘fatty acid’. Fats like to absorb stuff like smells, odors, scents and hang on to them. The goal is to let them air out so a balance is achieved going from a higher concentration (Smoky honey section) to a lower concentration (the air around them). But beeswax will hang on to some odors and not let them go, so simply setting the sections out isn’t perfect. And then, of course, we have small hive beetles that may like to take advantage of comb honey sections sitting out in the open if you will. Check out ‘air purification ionizers’. These eliminate odors in various environments and they may be useful in reducing or eliminating the smoky smell in your sections.

Getting the bees out of the sections is ...


The Classroom June 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Danielle Downey, Hawaii, Apiary Section Chief

Imagine no winter! But then imagine…. a never-ending field season! Hawaii’s conditions make for top-notch queen rearing and honey production year-round. Hawaii’s large queen producers provide about 30% of the queens used in the USA and 75% of those used in Canada. Honey production per hive is 2nd nationally (93lb), and several of Hawaii’s islands are still Varroa-free (Oahu detection ’07 and Big Island ’08). Small hive beetles arrived in 2010, and are now widespread and very damaging. The arrival of Varroa and Small Hive Beetle were a crisis situation that garnered USDA funding for a new Apiary Program in 2010, which became permanent in 2013. In the last decades, many State Apiary Programs have been losing ground, but with myriad concerns and interest in pollinator health, we are glad that trend was reversed in Hawaii with the recent creation of a State Apiary Program, with Chief Danielle Downey and three staff located in Hilo.

Hawaii Apiary Programs provide regulatory functions to facilitate queen exports and prevent spread of Varroa to new islands; biosecurity work to prevent new pests and Africanized bee incursion; outreach and education to teach beekeepers to prevent, recognize and manage these new pests. Collaborative research projects are also a priority with Hawaii’s unique situation, re-living Varroa’s arrival. With mysterious beekeeping losses throughout the world, Hawaii’s bee health problems are like going back in time—where losses are clearly due to Varroa and small hive beetles. We are most excited to use mainland lessons learned about Varroa to avoid the chemical treadmill, by breeding varroa-resistant bees with partners at USDA-ARS Baton Rouge and commercial beekeepers in Hawaii.

Born and raised in South Dakota, Downey was an entomologist by 5 years old, collecting bugs in the sandbox, but she found her way to honey bees and the pests that plague them over 20 years ago, beginning with a BS from the University of Minnesota with Marla Spivak, working on MN hygienic bees. At Simon Fraser University she received her MSc with Mark Winston, studying tracheal and varroa mite impacts. She then worked with Yves LeConte in France on Varroa resistance to pesticides. Before going to Hawaii to build the new Apiary Program in 2010, she was the State Apiarist in Utah. Building Hawaii’s Apiary program has drawn on all her experience, and she is now one of only a handful of State Apiarists whose responsibilities are entirely Apiary focused. She is active with Apiary Inspectors of America, does Tech Transfer for the Bee Informed Project, collaborates from Hawaii with multiple mainland research labs, and does her best to keep up with the bees!

"P.S. we are hiring!; we are looking for people." Danielle Downey

Q Seasonal and Regional Differences

I've been reading The Hive and the Honey Bee [1992], cover-to-cover, and have a question about something on pages 612-613, the Chapter titled, “Management for Honey Production”, by Dr. John Ambrose. He wrote, "A swarm of bees that issues from a hive in upper New York State in June would probably have sufficient time and nectar flow to store enough surplus for successful overwintering, but a June swarm in eastern North Carolina would simply be an expense to the beekeeper."

I would think that the more southern swarm would have a better chance of survival. I would have asked Dr. Ambrose about this, but he died in January of this year. What are your thoughts?

Bob Dye

This is just a guess on my part, but I think John may have been informing/commenting on region and the seasonality of plant growth and food availability for buildup. June in NY would be approaching the end of “spring”, maybe starting early summer, with lots of nectar and pollen producing trees and plants. This is a great time to swarm for this temperate insect always preparing for the next winter. They would have time and a flood of fundamentally important food resources to build up and prepare for the next NY winter that would be there in basically 3-4 months. For the NY beekeeper the season is shorter going more consistently from spring to summer to fall and colony growth is more predictable and not drawn out.

If you are a beekeeper in Eastern NC then spring has come and gone and June is summer. In the Piedmont area flower nectar and pollen resources have shifted from the abundance of spring to a more measured ‘summer flow’. The NC Beekeeper doesn’t want to lose the bees to a swarm and then s/he potentially loses what is next. You don’t want to be building up in June (summer in NC); you want to have used the massive spring flow to get population numbers up for the ‘summer’. Not that there might not be enough nectar, but the volume of resources has changed to some degree with a possible summer dearth approaching and fall resources in the future. If the colony population has not increased during spring, the season is virtually lost for the summer flow.

Q Preparing for Packages

Need your help! One of my hives died early, left a lot of honey. Also, I have a lot of frames of comb (extracted). I’m getting two 3# packages of bees. Should I put honey-filled frames in the first medium super (bottom) and then empty comb frames in the 2nd super (top)? Or vice versa? Should I provide a third super with frames with just foundation? Or maybe the empty comb frames should have some with just foundation? Here in Ohio we’re still having pretty cold nights. Advice would be much appreciated.


How about this to consider? When your packages come, use two mediums as a surrogate for 1 deep, using 10 frames in each. Put 5 frames of empty combs in the middle of both mediums and on sides fill in with frames of honey. This gives the packages the empty comb to prepare the brood nest as the queen is released and food on the side to support the near-term colony carbohydrate needs.

Q It Is All About Science, Not Marketing

I have some questions:

(1) What do you know about Ferro (iron) solution in bee drinking water?
(2) SymBeeotic Solution. What is this stuff and is it any good in the honey gut of a honey bee?

I’ve been using Bee Shield this past year. As usual, I always enjoy your Classroom in ABJ.
Wil Montgomery
Southside, Alabama

Thanks for the questions and that you like the Classroom. It is appreciated. Since we don’t have any other basis on which to make a decision, as awkward as it is sometimes to remove perceptions and emotion, we have to stick to ‘science’ as much as we can and then let that lead us to a decision using all the other skills we have at our disposal. So, since I raised that banner, here is what I think.

1) Show me the data that giving honey bees an iron supplement stops Varroa and AFB. Does that mean all honey bees are lacking in the miniscule amount of iron they need to carry on normal biological processes that now include controlling a honey bee pathogen and a huge parasite on a un-evolved host?
2)    I think probiotics are interesting. Honey bees eat a fermented food called beebread. So, it makes sense, if you are feeding honey bees a raw unfermented diet of some kind of pollen sub. patties, that this might be OK if the organisms were the same as in beebread—until they can get real pollen and ferment it into beebread.

If it makes you feel better, I don’t think any of these things are innately harmful, but it is important to consider whether the products are backed up by data demonstrating that they’re worth what you’re paying.

Q Essential Oil

I know you hear this all the time, but yes, The Classroom is the first thing I read. Now for my question: When you use essential oils such as lemongrass and spearmint oil, how many drops do you use per gallon of either sugar water or sucrose? Yes, I am getting excited; my first 3 lb. package is showing up on the 11th and I can't wait to get started again. Have a great day and a better tomorrow.



A 1
Hey Pat, thank you for the compliment. It is appreciated. So, tell me what your goal is in feeding essential oils?

Pat Responds
My goal is to get them on feed and to hopefully give them ... 


 The Classroom May 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Plastic Foundation

A well respected beekeeper recently told me that he did not use plastic foundation because it confused the bees' in-hive communication in the bee dance. A discussion of vibration and harmonics followed, most of which went over my head. So the question: Is there any solid research to back this up, or is this just one beekeeper’s interesting but wholly unfounded opinion?

The gentleman who talked about harmonics and how plastic distorts bee communication did not cite any research. He made it sound pretty scientific, but…I had doubts. You no doubt know how skilled beekeepers are at making pet theories sound like hard facts.
Just wondering what Jerry Hayes would come up with for this. I also thought that it would be good to get out a “no basis in research” statement through the Classroom, as a counterweight to this kind of thing.


Here is a research article "Abstract" by Dr. Tom Seeley et al. Read the last two

“Does plastic comb foundation hinder waggle dance communication?”

Thomas D. SEELEYa*, Adrian M. REICHa, Jürgen TAUTZb, a—Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA, b — bee group, Biocenter, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany Received 8 February 2005 – revised 16 March 2005 – accepted 16 March 2005 Published online 13 September 2005. Abstract – In recent years, plastic comb foundation has become widely used by beekeepers, but it has not been studied to see if it hinders recruitment communication by reducing the transmission of the comb vibrations produced by bees performing waggle dances. We used laser vibrometry to compare combs built with beeswax foundation vs. plastic foundation in terms of transmission of dance vibrations. We also used behavioral experiments to compare the recruitment effectiveness of dances performed on combs built with beeswax foundation vs. plastic foundation. We found that combs built with plastic foundation are markedly poorer at transmitting the 250 Hz vibrations produced by dancing bees. Nevertheless, we found no evidence of reduced effectiveness of dances performed on combs built with plastic foundation vs. combs built with beeswax foundation. Evidently, a comb built with plastic foundation provides a fully suitable substrate for waggle dance communication.

Q Feed Honey or Sugar Syrup?

Hello, I am brand new to being a beekeeper, (have ordered our first nuc and hives, to be delivered this spring). Some experts (our workshop presenters) and others feed their bees sugar water over winter when they need to. After listening in our workshop and later reading a few articles in the ABJ my question is:

If you don't want to feed bees sugar water (from the Wayne Rose article in ABJ, March 2014, p. 290) and don't have honey to feed them to get them started in the spring when they arrive because it's your first time having bees, or need to feed them over winter, can you feed them honey from other bee colonies or purchased honey? Thank you very much.

Mary McCord from Missouri


Real quick as a reminder honey bees need carbs (sugars) for energy at all times, especially in winter to produce heat from muscular movements and specifically in spring for food energy to feed and raise brood (baby bees) and stimulate wax glands to build new comb. Honey is the perfect carb, but honey coming from a colony having any one of the several active honey bee diseases can be a carrier of those disease organisms. And if the honey came from a beekeeper who misused chemical disease medications or miticides (Varroa), then the colony you are feeding it to can be stressed by these toxins they are exposed to inappropriately. In that case pure granulated sugar made into sugar syrup is an excellent neutral source of carbs.

Be aware of the disease danger if you buy honey from an unknown bulk supplier as a bee feed. However, with the huge difference in price between honey and sugar, you are money ahead to simply feed the sugar and not have the worry of potential disease spores in the honey. All the best on this, your new journey.

Q Russian Stock

Jerry, last night at our bee club a presentation was given by a club member on the advantages of the Russian bee. One of the things he said is that they live 30 days longer than other bees. This seems crazy. That would double the life of a worker bee. What is your opinion of the Russian bee?
Dick Laumeyer


Russian honey bees have some level of Varroa resistance. That doesn't include a dramatic increase in summer or winter life span. Caveat emptor.
Take care. Jerry

Q African Bees (scutella) in Africa

Your briefing of Africanized Honey Bee (AHB) was very interesting. Please explain why these AHB [scutella] never spread out of their original habitat in Africa. They had thousands of years and never reached for eg. south Europe where they would have had favorable conditions. At the same time, they conquered the Americas in a half century, finding the very narrow corridor in Middle America and spread to North. I like your no-nonsense comments.

Tibor Csincsa


There are different races and strains and even species of honey bees because they are restricted to local or regional geographic locations due to mountains, lakes, oceans, deserts or time. Through natural selection and inbreeding individual strains result. Take a look at a map of Africa. The Sahara Desert extends across the northern tier of Africa. That was/is the barrier. They could have gone up the coast, but there were already established honey bees of different races or strains and with these Southern cousins being non-adapted to compete, why bother. Stay where you are and life is good!

When they were brought over and released into Brazil, there were no geographical barriers going north. It was a great resource full of tropical rain forest. Eventually they made it into the US and were probably disappointed. Thanks for the compliment.

Q Varroa Mite Girls Night Out

 I have heard and read that if you leave a hive without eggs long enough for all the Varroa sealed in the cells to emerge (as with dispatching the old queen and raising a new queen from eggs in the hive) -- that when finally eggs are laid in the cells again that the foundress mites rush to enter the cells in numbers too large to support their progeny and the bee larvae and mites will die and be removed, thus causing a mite reduction due to a brood break. To your knowledge is there anything to that from anecdotal or empirical evidence?
Also, don't bee cells on standard foundation become smaller over time? Do they ever reach small cell dimensions?

Kerry Quigley
New London, MN


I have heard the same thing Kerry. From a purely biological reproduction standpoint, it doesn't make a whole lot of sense. Varroa want to survive and keep the species vital. All female mites rushing to the same cell and competing and offspring using the same larvae and pupae for food means that the honey bee may not mature to adulthood and be able to emerge. This is not a good survival strategy. It may happen from time to time with several female foundress mites and it may help the breeding strategy and cut down on inbreeding for Varroa, but it isn’t the norm.

Regarding your second question, yes, if comb is very old, cells do get smaller. But, small cell is not a Varroa control. It doesn't really affect the development period of the bee. European Honey Bees are genetically programmed to take 21 days to develop regardless. Plus, by the time the cells reach a smaller size, they are old and black from larval skins and ‘junk’ and represent a reservoir of disease pathogens that should have long ago be cycled out.
An analogy might be that the gestation period of a Saint Bernard and Chihuahua. They are both at the same maturity level at about 63 days, regardless of size, because they are both dogs.

Q American Foulbrood

In Issue March 2014 you say (in a response to David re: AFB)

“Don’t worry about woodenware.” – this really surprised me. In Australia we burn (have to, it is the law) any woodenware from an American foulbrood (AFB) infected hive. Indeed, a lot of AFB may well be moved around on secondhand woodenware. Could you please elaborate?
Max (Australia)


As the former Chief of Apiary Inspection for the State of Florida, our state law was also to burn all hives showing AFB. It is an excellent policy to be sure that all ...


The Classroom April 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Apiary Inspectors are the unsung support network of successful beekeepers in many states. I think they are sometimes taken for granted because they fill both the roles of Extension and Regulatory and this is a confusing combination. But, I wanted to take a closer look at State Apiary Inspectors and so from time to time I will highlight one to give them the credit they are due. So, here goes:

Barbara Bloetscher, Ohio State
Entomologist /Apiarist

“Ohio’s Apiary Program seeks to sustain a healthy honey bee population and support the beekeepers of the state. As the State Apiarist/Entomologist I am responsible for overseeing the program.  This includes registration of apiaries, inspection of all queen production businesses, and monitoring honey bee colonies moving in and out of the state.  Most of my time is spent managing the County Apiary Inspectors regarding the 4,440 registered beekeepers tending 6,053 apiaries totaling an estimated 40,000 colonies. Ohio has a unique inspection program because each county appoints and pays their County Inspector to check the apiaries in that county.  County inspectors can have a positive impact on the health of the hives in their county by helping to promote good pest management, identifying queen problems and finding pest problems before they spread. If a county has not appointed an apiary inspector, I conduct needed inspections, primarily focusing on apiaries from which queens, nucs, and colonies are sold.

“In 2009, a task force was formed to define the problems facing the Ohio beekeeping industry and make recommendations. Key issues identified were the general lack of education on beekeeping and agriculture, reduced forage for pollinators, and higher costs to maintain bees along with a malady of bee diseases and pests. Recommendations were to improve access to education, augment habitat and provide sources for hearty bees. 
“I work with Ohio State University Extension and various groups to tackle the goals of the task force, which includes teaching beekeeping and pollinator topics and staying current on research.  As the State Entomologist, I also identify insects and insect damage submitted by nursery inspectors and other agencies, and monitor invasive insect reports.

During the last four years we have participated in the National Honey Bee Health Survey.   Based on survey results and conversations with inspectors and beekeepers, it is obvious that varroa mite control continues to be a struggle.  The incidence of Nosema ceranae has also affected some colonies in Ohio. 

“Like other states, Ohio has seen a reduction in lands where plants grow wild to provide season-long sources of pollen, nectar and cover for pollinators, avian and other animal families.  It has been estimated that each honey bee colony requires an acre of flowering plants which is lacking in many areas of Ohio.  Fortunately, many groups are now focused on remedying this issue in Ohio and elsewhere. 

As a proponent of a strong Ohio Beekeeping Industry, my goal is to increase education for beekeepers and non-beekeepers about honey bees and their importance as well as to improve the health and vigor of our bees. Enhancing the ability of beekeepers to maintain their bees successfully and restricting impaired bees from entering the state are steps to be taken to attain these goals.  New beekeepers require good instruction and training on honey bee biology, behavior, and management, however it is equally important to continually enrich all beekeepers’ knowledge of new research and best management practices, so that we can maintain healthy, vigorous honey bees. If you have any concerns or questions, please don’t hesitate to contact me. Thank you,

Barbara Bloetscher, Ohio State Entomologist/ Apiarist,

Q Liquefying Granulated Honey with Ultrasound

I am writing today to ask about crystallized honey and the conversion back to a liquid state. We all know that a nice slow and gentle process of warming the crystallized honey can bring it back to a liquid state.  However, in a recent online search I found someone stating that ultrasonic sound can liquefy the honey in seconds and prevent crystallization from happening again. Curious, I looked online for home ultrasonic machines and found some intended for cleaning jewelry and silver and such.

Is this indeed a viable means to liquefy crystallized honey?  Does it indeed work in seconds/minutes? It seems like this would be a great service to offer customers at a farm stand or farmers market to keep them coming back. The machines aren't cheap but just imagine... “Sure I can liquefy your honey for you while you wait, just give me two minutes.  While you are waiting you really ought to try this just harvested comb honey, and did you see our new candles...”

Thank you for your help and your

Hello Dan,
First, I really like well prepared and crystallized honey ‘spread’ and so does most of the rest of the world.  But, it hasn’t been marketed efficiently here in North America. But as you may have noticed, I digress!

Ultrasonic treatment of crystallized honey can reduce crystal size without using heat which degrades honey flavor, odors and enzymes. Ultrasound will keep honey from re-crystallization for quite a while. It does have a place I think if you can justify the initial cost of the equipment needed since it is a much better way to keep honey from forming sugar crystals and stopping it from crystallizing first and then after the fact it can re-liquefy better than a heat

The $59.99 Jewelry cleaners do not have the strength /capacity to do what you want Dan.
Here are a few websites that mention using ultrasound to liquefy honey in case you haven’t already looked them up:

Thanks for the info!  Shucks, it won't work!

Q Nucs

I'm making some 5-frame nucs by splitting a few hives this year, and plan to keep a few nucs for myself just in case I need to replace a queen somewhere in the apiary later in the year. I can pull a queen from a nuc. If a queen is restricted to only 5 frames within a nuc, I presume her egg laying rate will slow way down due to limited number of frames and cells. What happens if she becomes re-introduced into a full size colony after several months in a nuc? Will she resume egg laying at the same "slow" rate she has been accustomed to in the nuc, or will she increase her speed to "normal" queen egg laying rates as if she were never restricted to a 5 frame nuc?

I love your "classroom" and look forward to your thoughts.

Chris Beeson
St. Louis, MO

Thanks for the Classroom compliment. Queens regulate laying in a variety of ways because there is a lot of necessary synergism within a colony that has to be on balance. It takes enough bees to regulate temperature and humidity, forage for nectar and pollen which then allows feeding developing brood, few stresses from secondary predators like wax moths or small hive beetles and lots of other small things. The queen’s egg-laying rate, even in a full-sized colony, goes up and down based on some of those things mentioned above. In a perfect world she can lay 2000 eggs a day in June because conditions are right to feed and care for that many. In January, in the north, she may not be laying at all, but in Florida it might be somewhere in between.

All that to say she is very flexible. A 5-frame nuc allows her to lay some and keep in practice awaiting the circumstances and timing to increase and expand if given the opportunity.
I think keeping nucs around, not only for queen insurance, but to have access to bees and frames of brood to move around is a great management tool. Do it.

Q Diatomaceous Earth

I appreciate  your Q & A in The Classroom of American Bee Journal. I was reading about the use of diatomaceous earth in a chicken supply company catalog. We have used it in horse feed for control of intestinal parasites. In this catalog, they sell diatomaceous earth in feed for intestinal parasites and to dust in the coop to control mites. Has anybody to your knowledge ever dusted their hives with diatomaceous earth to control varroa mites. Do you think it would work and do you think it would kill bees?

Thanks for your advice,

After 30 years of varroa, just about everything has been tried. Diatomaceous earth is the silica (glass) shells of organisms (Diatoms) from millions of years ago. When they died, they created huge deposits of diatomaceous earth.
These glass shells are broken and smashed and have incredibly sharp edges. When used as a pest control agent in your garden, these glass shards actually cut the insect skin/cuticle and their hemolymph (blood) starts leaking out. But insects don't have a method for their blood to coagulate, form a scab and stop the leak like we do. So, all their fluids drain out and they die.

Honey bees are an insect. Dust it on them to try to...


 The Classroom March 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Fungicides in Bee Hive Paint

I have a suspicion that fungicides that are used in paints are contributing to CCD. What are your thoughts?

Harold in Missouri


Thank you for the interesting question about fungicides in exterior paint and possible contribution to CCD. It sparked a curiosity and opinion if you don’t mind. Here is a statement from a paint industry web site, “Exterior paints: All exterior paints have fungicides, and low-biocide paints are not available for exteriors. The best choice for an exterior paint is one that has zinc oxide as the fungicide. Next best choices are zero- to very low-VOC (volatile organic compounds) paints, acrylic or latex paints, and recycled water-based paint. Avoid oil-based paints because of their high VOC content, as well as paint from old cans that may contain mercury or lead.”

Certainly any additional exposure to toxins by honey bees is the goal. Since honey bees forage in a 2-2.5 mile radius of their colony, there are lots of natural plant toxins that honey bees have encountered for millennia and now manmade toxins, not even counting the ones we as beekeepers premeditatedly put in a colony. Honey bees are tough but not impervious to all of these when they are added together.

According to the statement above, all exterior paints have fungicides and biocides in them to make the paint perform as expected in this harsh outdoor environment. I am not sure what this means if we only paint the exterior of the hive to make the expensive woodenware last longer. Colonies have been painted with oil based and older paint formulations for decades way before CCD was termed. Beekeepers have used linseed oil and tung oil and other oils to keep woodenware from rotting. Zinc- and copper-based wood treatments are also used. My biggest concern is the solvents used to keep these materials in suspension and allow them to penetrate the wood to keep fungus and termites from having a buffet. The solvents, VOC’s, are the most potentially damaging to the colony if not allowed to evaporate and air dry before using them for a honey bee hive. You and I don’t like the odor or the breathing this stuff; that is why we do it outside when we apply it.

Honey Bees are great users of ‘propolis’ to coat the inside of the colony structure, hive body, frames bottom board, top etc., and form an envelope, a cocoon if you will, as part of the colony's immune system to protect them from toxins and pathogens. This envelope on the inside and a well-aged outside wood paint or wood preservative coating applied by the beekeeper will give the longest life to the colony and the hive.

Q Moldy Syrup

Jerry, I make my own bee feed from beet sugar with a 2 to1 ratio: 2 parts sugar and 1 part water.  After a while I do see some black mold growing on the sides of the feeder bucket. I have heard you can add bleach or vinegar to the bee feed and this will slow the mold down as well as the fermenting. I was wondering if this was safe for the bees and if so, how much should be added per gallon? Or is there something else that could be added to the feed to help prevent this?



This is a perennial problem and it just happens in this competitive biological soup we live in. It is basically just this tremendous nutrient source that allows fungus, yeast, bacteria, slime mold and all sorts of other things to use this sugar solution to grow and reproduce. Nothing is sterile in the sugar itself or the water used to mix it or the feeder you put it in and then all the stuff floating around in the air. This is a high school science experiment--no different than you leaving a glass of fruit juice out in a warm environment for several days. Would you drink it?

Chlorine is added to municipal drinking water sources to keep 'organisms' from being able to exist in public water supplies. Then, we drink it. Many times a teaspoon of household bleach is added per gallon on sugar syrup to retard the growth of some molds, fungus and other organisms in sugar syrup.

So, the question is what does this do to the gut bacteria in honey bees and does it have health effects? The potential detrimental effect is probably less than a feeder full of mold/fungus. Take care Steve.

Q Vertical Integration

I work for a nonprofit group; we do bee rescues of wild, feral honey bees that infest homes and swarm where they are a nuisance. We relocate these bees to Coop farms (farmers donate land, we get them an agricultural exemption, then we subsequently tend to the bees and ensure their survival).

So, here is my thought: I think our nonprofit services can offer almond growers a huge financial incentive to keep bees permanently. Instead of them having to purchase and maintain hives, we can just place them into our Coop program. We take them commercial bees, or bees from our rescues, and we tend to them. That saves them the upfront money and having to pay a beekeeper. We would just ask them for a (large) donation to our nonprofit's services. What are your thoughts?

Cameron Barnette

And that is exactly what some large almond growers are experimenting doing. They have purchased a percentage of a commercial beekeeper’s operation and they get the bees for pollination. But, in turn, they have to burden some of the risk and cost during the other 330 days of the year that the commercial beekeeper normally must burden by himself. The beekeeper then becomes at some level a contract employee. It is all a work in progress to see if there is a ‘business model’ that can be developed to be successful.

Q Varroa Mite Cycle

Jerry, I am trying to understand how a bee brood break helps control Varroa?  This is what I know:
- 1.1 varroa survive when the bee emerges on average
 - varroa build up curve lags bee build up curve by approximately three months
 - varroa can survive six months in the phoretic stage when there is no bee brood
 - varroa, when bee brood is present, are in the phoretic stage 4.5-11 days.
 - varroa usually survive less than 5 1/2 days away from bees
In South Carolina I am interested in splitting first of March, then first of June after the spring nectar flow ( three months later), then first of August (approximately 2 months later) after cotton, and let the final split build up on soybeans.  I know a lot of colonies succumb after the honey supers are pulled the first of June due to varroa.
 I typically marry another queen with the split w/o a queen.  Hence, it probably takes 5-10 days for the new queen in the split to hit full speed with her egg laying.  I assume the split with the old queen keeps right on laying.  Approximately, 1/2 the brood ends up in each split.  So, there is probably a brood break of 5-10 days at most. I assume 1/2 of the varroa from the original colony end up in each split. I also assume most of the field bees end up with the split still on the original location. However, most of the varroa are in the brood.
 What am I missing and how does this all fit together to control varroa with a brood break?

Dave M. in South Carolina


Well if I understood the question correctly, it all has to do with Varroa being a parasite that requires honey bee brood, larvae and pupae to reproduce on. If brood is not available, then the mated female Varroa, the foundress mite, is then exposed /phoretic waiting, if you will, on adult honey bees until they get a pheromone signal from brood. This is what these mated foundress Varroa mites need as an obligate parasite to enter and begin the reproductive cycle on to maintain their species. If you can create a broodless condition, then it is a great time to use some form of Varroa control as they are all out in the open. None are behind capped cells safe and protected while they produce another generation.

Or, if you can create a situation with only a few Varroa in a split and if there is drawn comb, the queen can lay many more eggs a day than there are Varroa. The bees take advantage of this reproductive surge and for a while they can out reproduce the mites. But, if in your splits there is a large amount of sealed brood containing reproducing Varroa, then there is little advantage. Varroa need developing honey bee larvae and pupae to reproduce on. Limit this and a colony can temporarily out-reproduce Varroa. Do not limit this and there is little or no advantage because there has been no lack of larvae or pupae for the Varroa to use to maintain the species and they haven’t missed a reproductive beat.

A complete brood break allows either treatment, or the ability of a colony to then out reproduce Varroa if weather, and resources are optimum.

It is the opposite situation for a full size colony when fall begins and the honey bee colony is preparing for winter. The bee population drops, the queen slows laying and the problem begins as the Varroa population does not drop, so the proportion of Varroa mites to honey bees increases. If Varroa control hasn’t taken place in late summer, early fall then direct and indirect negative health events are caused by Varroa.

Q Feeding Brewers Yeast

I have a fast question for you. I am in the process of making no-cook candy boards for my colonies. Will mixing in brewer’s yeast be a problem? The recipe calls for 10 lbs. sugar, 3 tbsp. of lemon juice and 2 cups of water. Mix it and let it harden. I have a 1 lb. package of brewer’s yeast.



Remember that Brewer’s yeast or anything fed to bees when confined because of cold weather or changeable weather patterns means they can't get out and defecate to get rid of the indigestible roughage.  If the bees have to hold on to indigestible material in their intestines, then this is a great environment for other organisms like Nosema to grow and prosper. Brewer’s yeast is a nice addition, but doesn't ...

 The Classroom February 2015

by Jerry Hayes



Being a beginner beekeeper with 3 years to my credit, I always look forward to reading "The Classroom" upon receiving the ABJ.  Many thanks for your answers and insight.

I have a friend who constructs colloidal silver generators. He gives them away to people of interest who have various ailments, and tells me often about people who have received a new lease on life due to the taking of silver suspended in water, at very minimal cost to them. His generators, once advertised on E-bay, were removed by request of the EPA, I was told. He recommended I propose this question to you...Have you ever heard of beekeepers treating their water sources with silver to promote bee colony health? It has been proven that viruses do not grow in the presence of silver...nor does bacteria or fungi. Bob tells me it costs pennies for him to prepare his daily glass of water.

Looking forward to the next issue of ABJ, and your Classroom :)

With the love of bees in common,
Richard Ogden
Warner Springs, CA


Good Morning Richard and thank you for the Classroom vote.The first thing I think of is that silver is a metal like steel, copper or aluminum and in high doses I don’t think I want to consume a metal above my biological need for it like the iron we need for red blood cells. There is lots of anecdotal information about colloidal sliver and how it helps or hinders or does nothing in a variety of biological systems available. Remember, in the world of science correlation is not causation, meaning just because something happens in parallel with another event doesn’t mean one was the cause or result of the other. As an example, many things are said to contribute to the rise of the diagnosis of autism in the US. The rise of autism can be directly “correlated” to the growth in sales of organic produce almost exactly. And for that matter, so does the rise in the sales of HD TV’s and the number of Americans who ride their bikes to work every day. Do I personally believe any of these correlations….no, but some people do who like emotional correlations more than science and they are not causation. The European Union banned the use of colloidal silver for treatment of human disease in 2010, if memory serves me correctly. That tells you something right there.

No one has done a peer-reviewed study on the use of colloidal silver with honey bees. So, we just don’t know. Would I use it personally on my honey bees? The answer is no simply because we have approved, researched and proven products, systems and processes that have been shown to work successfully on honey bee parasites, pests and pathogens. Why fill up a honey bee with metal silver particles and not know how it affects queens, drones, larval food, foraging behavior and all the things that a honey bee colony has to do in concert to be able to prepare to survive the next winter. Might be an interesting experiment to see if you kill them or not, but that is not why we are beekeepers, I don’t think.


As we look at all the feeder boxes we pulled off our hives, my husband asked, "Why don't people put out community feeders in their yards instead of having to fill a feeder on each hive. It would be less disruptive to the bees also." I am referring to helping the hives build up for winter. Thank you for any insight you can give us.

Laura Faust
Eastern Missouri Beekeepers Association


“Community feeding” of apiaries can promote serious robbing and robbing can lead to loss of the weaker colonies in your apiary. Robbing does not always occur, but taking a chance on it starting is not something most beekeepers would want to risk. However, since you did not know this, your question is a perfectly logical and one that makes a lot of sense seeing how much time and labor it takes to feed each colony individually.

If your colonies are like mine, they are all separate and individual units — the sum of their bee parts, sometimes communally called a super organism. I have a small number of colonies, but enough to see that 30% are boomers, 30% are mediocre in the middle and 30% are junk. Managing each colony based on its own needs and your needs as the beekeeper is logical. Feeding is labor and resource intensive if you are looking to maximize whatever beekeeping goals you have set for this season. There are few things that are consistent among honey bee colonies, cows, chickens, the fruit trees in your yard or kids you have or have raised. They all should be treated individually because they are different and they need those slight management/attention nuances so they can achieve their genetic best.

I think you can visualize those 6 o'clock news stories where people are hungry and they have no roads and the helicopters swoop in laden with food and water and blankets. Notice they never land.  That is because the biggest, strongest, toughest individuals will engulf the helicopter and not only take the food but destroy the helicopter and its crew. So, the helicopter hovers and pushes the food out where the biggest, strongest, toughest take control of this resource. Hopefully they are also empathetic and the smallest, hungriest and weakest get some too.

The same thing happens if you open-feed your honey bees. The 30% that are boomers will dominate and take as much as they can. They are not empathetic. The 30% in the middle will get less and the 30% that are weak get very little if any.  Instead of the 30% of boomers deciding who gets what, you the beekeeper need to manage the 30% in the middle and the 30% that are weak and make those decisions with certain management techniques that can make them also become boomers. That means feeding, treating and doing all the other stuff

To get the best results from your colonies, you, the Beekeeper Manager, have to make decisions for each colony as a separate unit based on what you see when you open each colony. You need to assess things like: What season is it? What your Varroa sampling shows? Is the queen laying? And, the dozens of other inputs you get from the colony. It isn’t easy and the more colonies you get, the harder this gets, but it is the best way to manage for success.


I run a pumpkin patch in central Minnesota and I sell most of my honey in my serve-yourself pumpkin stand.  I am having some trouble with honey starting to crystallize. I presume from the outdoor temperatures? Any ideas? Is there a temperature that I need to stay above or below to keep my honey from looking bad?

Thanks much, love your articles,
Dick Hanson


Here is a slightly longish Jerry answer. Honey is a super-saturated sugar solution. All honey sugar profiles are slightly different because each flower produces nectar with different sugar ratios. So, when you have a naturally blended product as honey bee foragers visit and collect a variety of nectars, there is large variability. The ratios of the sugars fructose and glucose determine how fast the honey granulates or crystallizes. Some honeys do not granulate at all because these ratios are already balanced. Honey crystallization is a normal, natural process and is actually encouraged in many parts of the world since it makes eating and using honey easier when it is a semi-solid.

To balance itself in this super-saturated solution (honey), the glucose will precipitate out and form sugar crystals. Fructose is more water soluble, so it stays in solution. Temperature also influences how fast this sugar balancing/crystallization takes place. A temperature between 52 and 59 degrees F encourages crystallization. Below 52F, even to freezing, crystallization slows. Above 77 degrees F crystallization slows as well. Above about 100 degrees F the honey degrades and produces off flavor and color chemicals.

Sorry the honey looks bad, but this might be a consumer education process as this indicates a pure natural process. And, if you wanted to take advantage of this natural process, you could produce your own wonderful crystallized honey spread. Search up "Dyce Process" on the internet. In the meantime, if you want to reliquefy this honey, a hot water bath in a large pot with the honey still in jars will be needed. Not boiling, but about 100 F to 125 F with a quick heat up and fast cool down so the honey does not degrade, darken and taste poorly.


Jerry— have you seen this you-tube film?
Did the AgChem companies actually partner with Greenpeace to produce this or is it a blatant poke at the companies? Maybe you can help me out with wrapping my head around the politics here— hope all is well with you.


It was produced by Greenpeace. There is an actual lab at Harvard working on ‘robo bees’, but I think it’s more of a robotics/engineering goal than a ‘replace pollinators’ goal. Activists seized on this and have used it to claim big ag is behind it all. Everybody has an agenda. Agendas are great, but truthful agendas are better. And then, there are agendas designed for fund raising.

Just an FYI. Back in the 1960s, a French Marxist-turned-devout-Catholic theologian named Jacques Ellul wrote a book entitled “Propaganda.” One of the many points he made from his research was that the more educated you are, the more susceptible you are to propaganda. It flies in the face of what we might normally believe – that the less educated are more susceptible.

His point was that the more educated you are, the more you depend upon what you read and the more you are shaped by your worldview. The less educated you are, the more you depend upon your own direct experiences. So, I guess ...

The Classroom January 2015

by Jerry Hayes


Q Small Hive Beetle Control
Jerry….. I am looking to make some small hive beetle (SHB) traps and use Checkmite. We need a smaller/different sized strip. I am looking for someone at Bayer to contact and see if it’s possible and the cost involved. It would be a large-scale project.
Charles Lindner


Hey Charles, are you sure you want to put more organophosphates in a honey bee colony? SHB do not necessarily stay in the trap on contact with the pesticide until they die. Many times they venture out again and spread pesticides around within the colony as it is on their bodies/feet. This doesn't sound like a plan to me.

However, if you still think this is a good idea, contact Dick Rogers at Bayer:

Comment from Charles

Thanks Jerry. It’s a mixed bag of problems—that’s for sure. It’s the lesser of two evils. I have been using beetle barns with Checkmite for a couple years and not seeing residue in the wax yet (tiny, tiny amount tracked out), but I am losing hives to beetles. Most beetle barns have dead beetles in them indicating they don’t go far to die.

The other option is Fipronil, which doesn’t seem to be attractive to beetles (tested this summer very few dead). The Aussies have a Fipronil trap that works well—unfortunately, it is not registered for approval here. With that trap they have shown (I haven’t seen the data but the Ausssie government did) that the Fipronil stayed in the trap.

Unfortunately, oil trays and the other traps are just not effective enough on a large scale--and a pain to use. Exploring it a bit, I have a plan to keep the beetles pretty much in the trap. I am still pondering how to monitor that though.
Jerry Responds
Thanks for the update Charles. Small hive beetles (SHB) don’t take down strong, active and vital honey bee colonies. Anything which causes the colony population to slowly or quickly decline makes it attractive to SHB. Honey bees, as you know, produce an alarm pheromone when colony structure and organization fall apart. SHB can pick up this pheromone from miles away and then fly to the site.
You need a bee on every inch of comb. There are many ways to achieve this like removing boxes and crowding bees together until you can get Varroa, disease or queen issues fixed. I’d rather try other means first before adding more pesticides to the colony environment.

Comment from Charles
With much due respect, I sincerely believe you are wrong. (I’m writing an article for Bee Culture on this topic) In my yards this year beetles did in fact take down strong hives. When they reach a threshold level, they are successfully laying in capped brood. For the last few years I too was treating them as a pest and working on colony strength. This season I opened my eyes a bit.

Several queen-right healthy hives were hit this year. Yes, I am sure at some level there were problems. I am also sure that the beetles are reproducing even in strong hives. Unfortunately, European bees do not attack adult beetles very hard, and they do not attack hatched beetle larvae at all. With the right soil and weather conditions, this is a huge problem as the beetles are breeding like mites--very rapidly. At some point, they are like lions on an elephant--unusual, but capable.

Jerry Responds
Charles, remember that I was the Chief of the Apiary Section of Florida when small hive beetles (SHB) became a real concern in that subtropical climate. They loved everything about Florida. In surveys we could trap 500 SHB one night and 500 the next night and on and on! SHB target colonies stressed from other causes that don't have enough bees to protect the colony. When that is the condition, the SHB females start laying eggs because they have an advantage. It is as simple as that.

Why your colonies can't protect themselves is really a management issue for you. Don't blame SHB; they are just taking advantage of a situation that allows them to use your colony as a SHB nursery. You can have a honey bee on every inch of comb by removing or adding boxes. If they are queen-right, have few varroa and no discernible diseases or population losses from a variety of inputs, then it is difficult if not impossible for SHB to get a foothold. You are the manager and need to look, discern and act at the right time. You can do it without adding too many chemicals which are additional big time stressors and disrupt and weaken a colony making it even more attractive to SHB. It is a continuous vicious cycle.

Q Beebread

Your column in ABJ is what makes me want to continue my subscription. Thank you for all your hard work and your sense of humor.

What stops the fermentation process when honey bees make bee bread in the brood chamber? Does it run out of

Don Rewa


Wow, thank you Don for the compliment. I think I should probably stop now before you change your mind!

The fermentation process stops in bee bread for the same the reason the fermentation stops in wine, or cheese or sauerkraut. Food nutrition runs out for the bacteria or yeast to access and then their own by-products i.e. lactic acid or alcohol in the case of wine /beer etc. is a toxin for their continued reproduction. So add the two together, food runs out and toxic by-products, and fermentation stops.

Q Wax Moths

This a picture of a bottom board below a screen bottom that was left for about a year unknown to me. It looks like wax moths but they are really small. They have made tunnels all through the board.

Can you determine by the pictures if this is wax moth? Can they enter the hive through the screen bottom? It has gotten too cold to open the hive to see if they are there.

Thank you,
Jerry Deborde
Flatwoods, KY


It sure looks like wax moth larvae to me. They do not eat much beeswax, but rather the stuff we would call debris on the bottom board and, of course, old beeswax comb that contains the real food, which are larval skins shed during the pupation process. They can't digest beeswax very well and there is very little direct nutrition in it. But, the larval skins shed and then left behind in the cells that make the comb darker over time do have nutrition for them. They create the webbing you see, sometimes called frass, which they use to make tunnels and protect themselves.

Wax moths females will walk directly into a colony at night and if ...


The Classroom December 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Drawing Out Foundation

When is the best time to put the queen excluder on? I've heard you have to make sure the queen gets her pheromones on the foundation. The thinking is that the workers would not move up in to the supers (above the queen excluder) to draw out the comb.

Jerry Housewright
Eastern Tennessee


The queen excluder would go on anytime that you don't want the queen going up into the super to lay eggs. Her pheromones are not applied directly to foundation in order to lure young workers to draw out foundation into comb. Comb is drawn based on the early spring rapid colony growth as the days grow longer and the population size increases. The colony starts on the next cycle of getting ready to spread its genetics around by swarming and the journey to the next winter and maximum storage of honey as their only food supply through winter. Temperate zone evolved honey bees are always only concerned with two things: 1) Being sure the species is sustainable (swarming) and 2) the next winter.

Comb building is a process that needs: 1) Lots of young wax-producing worker honey bees; 2) Lots of high sugar content nectar to fuel the production of beeswax; 3) A place to build comb.

One of the problems sometimes is that at a certain level honey bees don't like to travel through the excluder. One way around this  during a honey flow is to establish another entrance above the excluder into the super(s). A large percentage of the forager population will choose to use this entrance and bypass the longer route of the bottom entrance carrying nectar collected up to transfer to those young bees making wax and building comb in the super(s). It is a quicker route and process with an entrance above the excluder.

Q Sugar Syrup Fermenting

Can sucrose solution which has begun to ferment be used to feed the bees in autumn if the solution is first boiled to remove the alcohol? If so, how long must it be boiled?



Ultimately, it depends on if it is beer-level alcohol or moonshine 90 proof! I would heat it until the alcohol smell is gone. Remember, alcohol’s boiling point is less than water, so it doesn't have to be heated at 212 degrees F., but it might not hurt to bring it to a temporary boil to kill the yeast that started this fermentation process. Just don’t boil it too long or you can create harmful products in the syrup like hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (an indicator for excess heat-treatment).

Q Honey Storage Pattern

This year for the first time ever, seven of the nine super frames (looking at the tops) appeared to be beautifully filled and sealed. However, when I removed them, all the frames had sealed honey on the sides and top, and the center of the frames was absolutely empty. The queen had not laid there either, so it wasn’t brood using that space. My bee library does not provide an answer. Do you have one, or is it just an unexplainable anomaly? The honey return was only about two-thirds or less for each super.

Thank you,
Dr. Robert Hough
Beaver Falls, Pa


It takes “X” number of honey bees and “X” number of nectar-producing flowers to allow the “surplus” nectar to be deposited in awaiting cells. If you don't have enough bees to collect enough surplus nectar or plenty of foragers, but not enough flowers to produce enough nectar, then in both situations nothing is stored. It may have started out good, but dropped off for any combination of those reasons.

The centers of the frames may have been filled with brood earlier in the season, but after that brood hatched, the queen may have cut back on her egg laying or moved to a different hive body, so those cells were not reused for brood. In addition, the honey flows may have dried up so they were not refilled with nectar either.

Hang in there! It is still fun and I'll bet the honey stored was still delicious.

Q Pesticides

I see a lot of feral bees recovering in North Carolina. I do a lot of removals here. I hive and relocate them. I never treat them and I don't lose that many to mites. I lose more to chemicals being sprayed in agricultural areas than anything else. As far as neonicotinoids are concerned, haven't they been banned in Europe because of their damage to honey bees there? Also, don't you work for a chemical company, so could your opinions be somewhat influenced.



 I work for Monsanto now and this is a company that primarily sells seed and herbicides, such as Roundup. The company also purchases neonicotinoids from other manufacturers and applies them to some of the seeds that our company produces and then offers for sale to farmers. Virtually all seed companies do that same thing because these products provide exceptional control of some very challenging pests, especially in corn production.

Neonicotinoids have been banned in Europe, but it is certainly not clear to me that this was the right decision. There is a lot of research done that when peer reviewed is considered flawed and untruthful. The EU situation is the same. Politicians responded to voters who have been convinced and manipulated by clubs, associations, and organizations that use ignorance as a way to make fund-raising appeals. Many times this junk science is embraced by some clubs and organizations to add to their fund-raising agenda for support.

We, the public, are emotionally manipulated so much because we/me/you can’t know everything, so depend on “trusted” sources. Be careful of the trusted source. Trust but verify. I just received a paper that said farmers in the UK were being devastated by ‘flea beetles’ on canola. They were not able use to use neonicotinoids that had been effective. Now they have to use chemistry that is 20-25 years old and much harsher to bees and the environment. There are always trade-offs.

I joined Monsanto a couple years ago because I felt this was a company that showed the capability to make a difference on the most important challenge we face, among many, in the honey bee industry. Effective varroa control has been a growing problem for 30 years and we have made very little progress toward obtaining a real solution. I decided to try a new approach. Monsanto is researching new solutions that I believe could be important in finally turning the tide on varroa. That’s why I am here, advocating for the bee industry and offering my experience and advice to the researchers involved in this effort.

Go to the Bee Informed Partnership website, and look at the multiple year survey questions and answers.

Take care,

Q Amitraz

Jerry, has Apivar (amitraz) been tested for leaving residues in the colony/beeswax? I am thinking about using it for my winter Varroa treatment, if needed, beginning in the later part of January here in SC due to the temperatures. If I put it in the later part of January, it will just make the 42 day/6-week period prior to the nectar flow starting around the first of April by about two to three weeks, which is the time frame they recommend it being out of the colony prior to the honey supers going on.

Dave MacFawn
Lexington, SC


One of the advantages of amitraz is that it degrades/breaks down much more quickly than some of the other 'strip' miticide formulations. But, it also takes a bit longer to control varroa as well. And, as a side note, it seems to be more toxic to queens. This is why we need to figure out a non-chemical way to control Varroa. Everything is a trade-off, Dave.

Q Bee School

I have an interesting situation I got myself into and I would like your advice. I offer Bee School 101 to raise money for charity. I do a bee-talk and hive visit as an auction item. I have always done the visits in the spring. This year, the folks just let me know last month, so I tentatively set the date for beginning of October when the Apiguard comes off. They just invited two more people, so now, four adults. Of course, they are interested in bees and possibly getting into beekeeping.

I visited my hives yesterday and I was stung three times on my foot in the back of the hive while I adjusted the screen closure for the bottom board. I was in street clothes and open shoes. No big deal—I’ll count these as my therapeutic stings for the season. But now I'm thinking that a hive visit with non-beekeepers is foolish in the fall. The bees are more defensive and you can't linger. I wonder if I should postpone for the spring and make sure everyone is suited up? I'm helping a friend with her hives tomorrow and maybe they are nicer than mine, but I'm thinking this defensiveness is a fall condition. What do you think?



Generally, it is not so much seasonal as it is


The Classroom November 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Bees Collecting Honey Dew

I am in NW Tennessee. I was having trouble with my phone line and decided to walk to the mailbox and check the line also. I came up to a pecan tree and it had a buzz like a swarm! I walked around the tree, shaded my eyes but couldn't t see flying bees right off. But after close observation, both honey bees and bumble bees were working on the leaves and I have never seen this before. Is this common?

James Hinton,


You may have heard about a very small insect called an aphid. It is one of the few insects that like honey bees have some level of sociality; meaning they like to live together. Aphids feed on plant sap. The leaves are the thinnest part so allow the piercing mouth parts of the aphid to access the fluid in the leaves. This sap is very thin and of very low nutritional value, especially protein. An individual aphid has to process a lot of sap to get the nutrition it requires. The aphid’s digestive system is almost a straight tube from the mouth to the anus, the excretory end. Because the volume of sap processed is so great, most of it is expelled. And most of it has lots of sugars in it that the aphid simply can’t utilize, so it is expelled on the leaf surface.

This is where the ‘sociality’ part comes in. Put hundreds or thousands of aphids on a leaf and then multiply those by all the leaves on a tree and that is a lot of sugary aphid excretion, sometimes called honey dew. This is a food resource that is easy to collect and has food value for all sorts of insects, ‘bees’ included, but also ants and some small mammals, fungus and yeast etc.

Honey bees and their cousins land on the leaves, lick up the sugary aphid excrement and bring it back to the colony to be used immediately or stored if the volume is great enough. It isn’t really honey because it isn’t nectar from flowering plants collected by the bees, brought back and turned into or stored as honey. This material is from another insect, the aphid. In Germany, as an example, there is a lucrative market for this special material, honey dew honey, that is collected by honey bees from the Black Forest region and extracted and packaged in jars just like real honey. It has a unique taste, color and odor and is prized by some.

The short story is that honey bees and bumble bees are simply collecting an easy sugar-based food resource deposited by aphids on the leaf surface.

Q Pressure-treated Lumber; Placing Beeswax in Your Smoker; and Bee Aggression

1.    My first question concerns the recent discussion of using pressure-treated wood (PTW) in beehives. I have been using PTW for my hive stands and the 2x4 hive support-frame that the bottom board sits on. I have had no problem with these, but they are painted. Wouldn't painting PTW help to seal in the toxins and prevent the bees from contacting it?

2.    Is it okay to use beeswax in my smoker to help keep it going? When I started beekeeping, I read many books and none mentioned dropping in a little ball of beeswax to help keep your fuel burning. Jamie Ellis' article, in the May issue of ABJ, had a good discussion of smokers, and a couple of excellent tips, but he did not mention using beeswax to keep it going. Pine needles for fuel are often mentioned, but never beeswax. So, is this just too obvious to mention, or is there some problem with using beeswax? Perhaps it gums up the smoker? Or perhaps burning beeswax is not calming to the bees?

3.    And finally, what are the elements that affect the mood of a hive? Because of bears, I have my hive on the roof of my house. This spring for about 3 weeks, I could not work in my backyard without a veil because a 1/2 dozen bees would get into my face. It appeared to be one hive in particular, and I made plans to requeen in spite of the fact that it was a very productive hive. But before I could get a queen, the problem seemed to take care of itself. So I guess my question is: What are the elements that would cause one hive to become aggressive when the others don't appear to be?

Roger Ledbetter


1.    Letting the wood breathe, dry down and weather for a few weeks or more is a good idea for the use that is going to be close to or in contact with honey bees. Painting is good as well after drying down and off gassing to seal anything else in.

2.    Beeswax is highly flammable and once it gets going, it is almost impossible to put out. It doesn’t smolder; it burns really well. That is why it is used to help start fires for camping or fireplaces. Don’t put it in a smoker unless you want a flame thrower.

3.    Remember that honey bee queens will mate with 20+ or so drones and store that sperm in convoluted layers for later use. This diverse genetic nature of multiple drone matings is why honey bees are survivors since each drone brings unique genetics to the colony. Some of these genetics are good and some from other drones are considered bad or unhelpful. Depending on the drone sperm ‘layer’ the queen is accessing to fertilize eggs to produce workers, a drone could have carried a gene for more heightened defensive characteristics. Once the queen used up that sperm from the drone with the grumpy gene and another different drone’s sperm was accessed, then the attitude of the workers produced would have changed as well.

Q Do Wet Supers Attract Small Hive Beetles?

Thanks for all you do for us beekeepers. When I am done extracting my honey supers, I stack them wet in a barn with moth crystals on them. But this year I am seeing more and more hive beetles. Will these wet honey supers be fine with the moth crystals on them? The only honey that is in them is what is left from extracting. My question is: Will the hive beetle come in and mess up my honey supers with what little honey is left on them?



Wet supers are very attractive to small hive beetles (SHB) Steve. They smell like a disrupted honey bee colony ready to be used as a SHB nursery. Can you stack them outside away from your colonies to discourage robbing for a couple days and let the bees clean them up? They benefit from the easy nutrition and you benefit from dry supers. SHB attraction decreases and then you can store them as you have been.

Q Supering for Maximum Honey Production

My honey production is very good this year, in spite of the fact that I had to leave my hives for two months in the middle of the nectar flow. About two weeks after the main flow started, I stacked two to four additional supers on each hive. Some of the supers had drawn comb; others were only foundation. With the additional supers, the hives ended up taller than I am with eight or nine supers.
This experiment has had  ...


 The Classroom October 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Other Visitors
I make my own screened bottom boards specifically designed to provide 75% bottom board and 25% screen, which prevents all the dropped pollen and wax scales from falling into the tray, which otherwise would result in significant loss for the bees. This system has produced very strong, productive hives with a 95% reduction in small hive beetles without chemicals. The bees also seemed to have learned to push debris, worm larvae, etc., into the areas in the bottom board that are cut out for the screen. The beetles and debris fall through the screen,leaving the rest of the floor neat and clean for the working bees.

Anyway, I use standard cafeteria trays beneath the screened bottom boards ($2.00 each), which work great and because they are white, they provide an excellent background for viewing what falls through (unlike black trays normally used in commercial beetle trap trays).
I have noticed in the oil tremendous numbers of tiny black insects--some of which resemble microscopic ants, and some which look like very tiny winged gnats.

I never knew hives could be plagued by these very tiny insects. Is this normal? Are these insects doing any significant harm?

Reeves Jones


Have you sent any samples to your state entomologist for ID? They certainly could be ants or small flies. This would not be unusual.

As you have discovered, there is a lot of debris that is generated within a colony of honey bees. That is why small hive beetles, dermestid beetles, ants and flies, etc. are attracted to a bee hive because the odors it emits—bee bread fermenting, honey ripening, bees dying from the colony—these all can produce additional trash/garbage which is attractive as a food source for many organisms. Now add in some type of vegetable oil which can be a ‘food’ item when fresh or as it degrades and becomes rancid (it has larval skins, small hive beetles, flies, ants, other insects, honey bees, pollen, bee bread and who knows what else in it and this becomes a very attractive ‘buffet’ for lots of things including skunks and raccoons).

An opinion is like a nose, and here is mine. I think the oil and the hive debris in the oil are attractants to some insects for food and reproductive reasons. And when they go to access the ‘food’ you have provided, they get stuck in the ‘buffet’ oil. (Kind of like the La Brea Tar Pits that caught Mammoths and Saber Tooth Tigers)

Q Neonicotinoids

How are you doing these days? I am sending along an email received from my friend here on the Gaspe’ Coast, an outstanding artist and naturalist, John Wiseman. I was wondering what your read is on the subject of the use of neonicotinoids. Is there definitive proof of their destruction of the bee colonies or is it still subject to question, etc.? I don’t see any honey bees on the fields of clover anymore. (So sad)

John Affleck

Wiseman Letter
I have heard recently of an international study concerning the uses of neonicotinoids (not sure if I have that spelling right), as an insecticide and its deleterious effect on bee populations the world over. This type of systemic insecticide has now been proven not only to be quite possibly the main reason for bee population collapse, but it is also having a dire effect on fish and birds. Well, surprise, surprise. Researchers have been warning of the potential neonicotinoids for years, but no one is listening and one can bet that in the meantime the big tobacco producers are rubbing their hands together with glee. The researchers have gone so far as to declare that the use of neonicotinoids could be as much as 10,000 — that’s ten thousand times — worse than DDT!

John Wiseman


The list of problems with honey bees starts with

1) an introduced parasite called the Varroa mite which came from Asia and was first reported in the US in 1987. Our European-derived honey bees are unadapted to the Varroa mite and as such, the mite is a bad parasite because it kills its host, our honey bee. Make a fist and place it somewhere on your body. Proportionately, this is how big a Varroa mite is to a honey bee’s body. It is a huge parasite sucking the bee’s blood and vectoring viruses, etc. Varroa is everywhere and approx. 95% of the wild /feral colonies that were living in a tree or wall of a barn, etc. are gone…dead. So, you are right, unless you have a beekeeper around you someplace, you don’t see too many honey bees.
2) Varroa mites transmit viruses to honey bees which cause disease--kind of like mosquitoes on us that transmit viral diseases.
3) With the growth of suburbia, roads, malls and agriculture, there simply are not as many wild blooming plants that provide pollen and nectar.
4) The crazy thing about Varroa mites is when they came on the stage, the only thing beekeepers were given to control them were pesticides. Pesticides are introduced into honey bee colonies to kill a little bug (varroa) on a big bug (honey bee) and there is collateral damage, of course.

And then, there are others pesticides used by homeowners, golf courses, road sides and in agriculture that, if honey bees are exposed, may result in death. Neonicotinoids (more commonly referred to as “Neo-nics”) are a very minor part of the threat to honey bees, but the public has been sensitized that these chemicals are bad. When applied as seed treatments where the seeds are planted in the ground, the exposure at the early stage of plant growth is limited to the insect pests in the soil and later to those eating on the foliage of the plant – thus the term “systemic insecticide”. This targeted application results in extremely low exposure to all other living organisms including honey bees, fish, birds, dogs, cats, cows and people. In addition to limited exposure, neo-nics also have low toxicity to mammals and have become widely used as replacements for more toxic chemistries. They have incredibly low mammalian toxicity which makes them safe for us. Neo-nics are effective insect killers and if you improperly use them, they can kill honey bees, but when used as seed treatments, there is no credible evidence that they are the main reason for bee population collapse. The bottom line is that label directions must be followed and Best Management Practices should be used 100% of the time.

Q Gluten-Free Honey ... What!!

I have a friend with a small farm stand on the east end of Long Island, New York. A customer asked him if honey is or can be Gluten free. I told him I didn’t known, but knew how to find out. I have read the American Bee Journal for years, “The Classroom” first. So now you have been enlisted to solve the mystery.
Thanks in Advance,
John Carson


You have a first to add to your bucket list John. You are the first to ask me about Gluten-free honey!

 Let me give you my Readers Digest version of what gluten is:


The Classroom September 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Bee Chemistry

I have a bee chemistry question for you. Each year, we feed our bees large quantities of sugar syrup. Sugar is sucrose--a disaccharide. Honey contains glucose--a monosaccharide. My question is this: Can honey bees digest the sugar syrup directly or do they have to break it down using some enzyme in their body? If that is the case, would it be healthier to feed the bees surplus or old honey when their supply is low. Enjoy your articles! I’ve been keeping bees since 1949.

Hugh Gravitt
Virgilina, VA


Yes Hugh, the bees invert the disaccharide sucrose (2 sugars bonded together, fructose and glucose) sugar to a simpler form--a monosaccharide (1 sugar by itself) of just fructose or glucose by adding enzymes. It does take energy for the honey bee to produce the enzymes. That is why feeding (disease free) natural honey or fructose itself is better because they do not require the conversion from a di(2)saccharide sugar to a mono(1)saccharide sugar.

Q Critters in the Barn

I am keeping all my beekeeping “stuff” at home in my garage. I have been driving out to a new location (45 min) to the bees. I want to move all my beekeeping equipment to an old barn out in the woods that is much closer to my new location. The barn is not in perfect shape. It has a good roof, but critters can come in. I would share the space with medical billing records. It’s amazing how many critters there are in the woods! We forget how buggy the world is when we live in suburbia. What issues will I have if I keep all my equipment out in an old barn? I figure you have seen it all visiting apiaries in Florida! Thanks again.

St. Louis, MO


If I can assume that the old barn is porous, then you will have some visitors/residents in supers and hive bodies. You live in a house that is nice and secure from the elements--your food is protected, you don’t have birds, rodents, roaches, raccoons and on and on. Well, out of suburbia mice, rats, wax moths, roaches, dermestid beetles and innumerable other creatures are looking for a nice secure home too. It is tough to protect drawn comb unless you seal it up in some big tub or tote with some wax moth repellent (paradichlorobenzene). Mice and rats will nest in unprotected equipment. All this to say that you can store stuff here, but it takes some forethought and planning. Your garage or basement would be better. However, as you indicate, it is farther away from your new apiary, so is not as convenient.

Q Vaporize Them

I have read several articles about Varroa Mite Vaporizers that use 12 Volts DC for heat. What are your thoughts or experience with these? Thank you for your time to answer this question

Merl from OK


Vaporizing requires another piece of equipment and your car battery that heats up crystals that volatilize into toxic acid vapors that you gas the colony with to kill, hurt, damage a little bug (varroa) on a big bug (honey bee). You have to wear a respirator, eye protection, a long-sleeved shirt and long pants, so you don’t have acid burns in your lungs or on your skin or eyes. Then, you must also consider how this product will hurt the bees with similar acid burns on their antennae, eyes, wings, mouths and more?
Since vaporizing mite-killing chemicals in the hive with an electric vaporizer to control varroa is not an EPA-approved varroa control method in the United States, I do not recommend it. There are several safer, government-approved and effective varroa-control products on the market. Why not use them?

Q More European Drones to Control Africanization?

I have been wondering for a while if it would lower African bee populations if we put a capped European drone frame into every hive in which we installed a new queen.
Could we flood the mating areas with gentle bees and reduce African genetics? Has any research gone into this?



That is what they tried in Brazil in 1959 and subsequently in several other countries. Hasn’t happened yet. Defensive trait dilution could help if you could get enough European honey bee (EHB) drones to consistently compete against African honey bee (AHB) drones. Because AHB will swarm 15-20 times a year, under good conditions, they contribute lots of drones to DCA’s (Drone Congregation Areas) and can dominate the breeding scheme. They not only breed with AHB virgins, but also with EHB virgins and mixed genetic populations. Over time they actually will refine and stabilize the local genetics to a point where the population of honey bees is predominately AHB.

AHB are a super bee. Not nice or safe, but a dominant survivor in the tropics and subtropics.

Q Queen Laying Eggs on Bee Bread

I installed a nuc two weeks ago and I have noticed that the queen is laying on top of cells that are already half filled with pollen. So, I replaced a couple frames with just foundation with frames that had empty comb in order to give her more room to lay. Will this solve the problem?

Also, even with the upper entrance blocked, my bees are still packing pollen into the supers. Is there a way to discourage them from this behavior? I would prefer they kept it for themselves in the brood box.

Your column is fantastic; thanks for all the great information.

Kind regards,
Lara Jones


Are you sure that the queen was laying in cells with pollen/bee bread? That would be almost impossible given how a queen selects a cell to lay in. But.....Yes, having emptier comb will give her room to lay if they are honey- or pollen-bound.

So much of honey bee foraging behavior is a blend of what is available and what they are genetically programmed to seek. It can be a bit of a balancing game based on what flowers are blooming and then what proportion of nectar and pollen they are offering to pollinators with what the colony developmental needs are and what the bees “like” to collect--some bees picking one over the other.

Our European genetically based honey bees are always preparing for winter, so they collect what they can, regardless of where in the colony it can be stored. So, for right now there is lots of pollen, lots of foragers that want to collect it and a place in the colony to store it. The supers just happen to be the place. Not your fault.

About the only thing you can do is take the supers off and hope you can guess when the next bloom period might produce nectar to be stored to put them back on. If you were producing comb honey for your own use, a little high-protein pollen mixed in with your comb honey would not necessarily be a bad thing if you enjoyed the combination.
Remember, if beekeeping were easy, everybody would be doing it.

Q Queen Cell Surgery

Jerry, here is my question: Can you successfully cut out a well-developed queen cell from plastic foundation? (My friend does not want me to take and replace the frame). I suppose asking why is the better question!



Tell your friend to lighten up as you only need the frame for a week or less, depending on how far development of the queen is along and you’ll bring it back.

Remember, that if it is a natural queen cell produced from what was going to be originally a horizontal worker cell on the comb face, the colony had to somehow transition from horizontal to a vertical cell position. They do this by copiously feeding the selected larva a lot...

  The Classroom August 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Pro-Biotics?

I’m sure this is a new one for you. I give my racing pigeons a product called Primalac Pigeon. It helps prevent E. coli and salmonella by providing helpful bacteria. It’s a water soluble powder (1 tsp per gallon). If I put this in the bees’ outdoor water source, do you think it would benefit the bees?
Ingredients: Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product dehydrated Lactobacillus casei fermentation product, Bifidobacterium thermophilum fermentation product dehydrated, dextrose and citric acid.



This is not really that new. The racing pigeon part is new and sounds pretty cool. There has been lots of interest the last several years, especially due to the loss of honey bee health in general on the ‘nutrition’ component of honey bee health. Do a search on ‘fermented’ diets and the honey bee gut micro-biome and you will come up with lots of interesting information.
Jack, you and I have more organisms living in our intestines than one can imagine. They do the majority of food digestion for us and out compete bad bacteria, provide a healthy gut pH and even make vitamins for us. If you watch any TV at all, there is a solid advertising effort to sell us Pro-Biotics in the form of capsules or yogurt or kefir to introduce a continuous supply of good bacteria to us for improved health. Honey bees don’t eat pollen; they eat bee bread, which is a fermentation product of pollen. Think yogurt again.

You are on the right track. What I cannot say in fact is if the pigeon product is good for honey bees, bad for honey bees or will have no value. My guess is that if fed directly, it probably won’t kill them. Putting it in an outdoor water sources is a bit iffy because UV may destroy the organisms and/or allow the harmful bacteria, fungi and yeast in the outdoor water source to eat these as food, etc.

Q Continuously Expanding Brood Nest

I appreciate reading The Classroom each month. I’ve picked up a number of principles that have been useful to my beekeeping. In the June 2014 edition you mentioned a “continuously expanding brood nest” technique. I googled that term and found information about checkerboarding, and unlimited broodnest management. Are these the principles you are referring to? Or is “continuously expanding brood nest” a separate concept?
Stafford, Virginia


Nothing is really new in beekeeping Pete. Our smart forebearer beekeepers had a lot of stuff figured out. So, yes these are similar to what I do, but with certain twists and turns that just complicate the goal I think.

The goal in this more intensive management process is to simply give the queen as much room to lay in the “brood” area, whatever combinations of boxes and sizes you pick. Unclog the brood area and worker brood production goes up so populations go up. Unclog the brood nest and swarming declines because brood pheromone concentrations are one signal that the colony is populous enough to swarm (reproduce). Unclog the brood nest and nectar collection goes up in parallel with forager population increase. This requires more equipment.
All you are doing is moving late stage larvae and capped brood frames above the permanent brood area into another box separated by a queen excluder and replacing those frames you moved up with frames with empty open comb. Then keep doing this. As brood emerges in the frames, you have moved up, rotate those back down as those brood frames below become full of brood are moved up.

Supers can be placed on top of this stack and if Varroa is under control and diseases are absent, then you have met the population parameters to collect and produce a lot of honey. It is just a management manipulation game, but does require more beekeeper work.

Pete Replies
I’ve been thinking through various implications of this practice, and I think I’ll give it a try. I think that the bees will tend to store the honey in supers (and not in the brood box above the excluder) as long as that box is managed intensively to keep it full of brood. I’m excited to see what happens.


Q Too Much Bee Bread and Nectar

The bees in my yard are flying and robust as yours must be too. However, bees in one hive must have flown to Colorado for Cannabis... A single super was put on top in April. Since this hive was strong, there was no need for inspecting the hive. Then about a month later I added another super. Ten days later the second one, which was on top, was inspected. There was nectar in all 9 frames. Last week the bottom super was inspected for the first time. I was shocked to discover much beebread in the frames (~30%) and capped honey (~10%). It may have been due to 50% of top deep frames only having foundation. Just a guess...

So, how can the beebread, nectar and honey be removed from this weird situation?

Ken Brown


Rocky Mountain High....Dude.

But seriously, when there are a lot of easy resources coming in, the colony will store anything anywhere in the most convenient place because they “know” it won’t last and even now they are preparing for winter. Perhaps this is similar to humans. We may not need all the soft drinks, pretzels and mashed potatoes right now, but genetically our bodies know from a historical standpoint that there will be lean times, so we store all this stuff as “fat” in our belly, hips, back, face, etc.

Sometimes this is called being “honey bound or pollen bound.” All reasonable space is used to store food coming in. This does restrict the queen from laying and is a signal to the colony that it might be a good time to asexually reproduce (swarm) as conditions look good for a swarm to successfully survive and prepare for the coming winter.

All that to say you need to provide empty combs for the queen. If you don’t have any and they haven’t drawn out foundation, you can take some of the frames with a majority of nectar/honey out and place them 40-50 yards away and let the colonies rob them out. (Be careful not to do this during a dearth since it could cause mass robbing of your weaker colonies.) This creates empty comb and the resources have not been wasted, just transferred. Beebread will not be removed this way, but maybe you will need it when the queen starts laying again and brood needs to be fed. If you really need to get rid of it, cut or scrape the comb down to almost the mid-rib and disturb, mess up the beebread, then it might be removed as junk.This is a good problem to have Ken. However, from a beekeeper management standpoint, it slows things down.

Q Food and Drink in the Hive
I teach a beginning beekeeping class each year through our club. I frequently see new beekeepers trying to be helpful by putting water next to or even on top of hives. I counsel that this is unnecessary and unwise. But it does raise a question. What are the parameters of bee dance communication? What is the shortest distance that a waggle dance can communicate? Practically, what is the farthest they communicate in terms of distance?
Remember that honey bees do not forage for food or find food in its ‘raw’ state within a hive. As a result, ...


The Classroom July 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Comment - Kathy

Hi Jerry,
We are all so sorry to hear of the passing of your wife, Kathy. We are a beekeeping community and when one of us suffers, it reverberates throughout the industry. Heartfelt condolences to you and your family. I once read When Bad Things Happen to Good People by Harold Kushner. He talked about what to do when someone you know experiences a terrible loss like you have. Words present a challenge; we know we can’t say enough to comfort you. Kushner says to just be there - be supportive, be present, be around when times get tough or lonely. Jerry, your beekeeping friends are here to hold you up. We appreciate what you do for bees and beekeepers and we are here to continue working together to make the world a better place for bees. Hang in there.

Christi Heintz
Project Apis m.

Thank you Christi. I thought I was tough and in control and Master and Commander. It all changed pretty quickly. Sometimes the testosterone is flowing and my game face is on. And at other times a sound or a song or a situation will make my eyes well up--which I think is a good thing. I have had to get up and excuse myself from some business meetings here, but that is life and perhaps recognition of the importance of life. We all have various families. We have our Biological Family and maybe a Church Family, Work Family, or Club Family, but next to Kathy, and our children, and Aunts, Uncles, Brothers, Sisters, the Beekeeping Family is truly amazing. I have been contacted by so many I have known for years like you and others from all over the world who I have no idea who they are, but all have reached out and offered sincere support and encouragement and love.

It is pretty amazing. I guess if I were to give some free advice at this time, it would be don’t take the love of a spouse or friend or acquaintance lightly as it can change dramatically in a short time. And as much as you think you are ready, you are not if True Love is there. So, be aware, be grateful and find your husband, wife, parent, friend or….the person in line behind you in Wal-Mart and give them a hug, no matter how much it may surprise them. We have a picture kind of a thing in our house that says, “Life is a Journey and Love Makes it Worthwhile”. Make it worthwhile. You have for me by simply reaching out. Thank you and I would give you a hug if you were close by. Next meeting OK?

Q Managing Bees in a Building

Just received May’s issue and noticed the article on the Historic Illinois Bee Castle in Taylorville, IL.I am wondering that if one were to raise bees in a structure like that, would your overwinter survival rate be better? Also, when you are working the hives and bees start flying around in an enclosed structure, how would they get back home?
I live in Elgin, IL and my winter colony survival rate here is at best 40%. Are there more people out there doing this? Need more research.
The first thing I read is your articles on Q&A; keep up the good work.

Nick Borodaj


Having colonies inside a building with an outside entrance or on an enclosed wagon/trailer type arrangement was very typical and still is to some degree in Europe now and for the last 100-150 years or so. This extended on a moderate scale into the US and Canada, mostly from immigrant beekeepers. This was a way to keep control of valuable colonies and to prevent them from being stolen, primarily.

Some Canadian and U.S. beekeepers have taken the concept a step further by overwintering their colonies in climate-controlled buildings, but these hives are removed from the buildings in early spring. Use of year-round “bee houses” or “house apiaries” is no longer common in the States.

There may have been some advantage to an enclosed structure from winter with cumulative heat and protection from the wind and direct cold, but this is probably minor. I have been in places in Europe and Eastern Europe where colonies were kept inside a trailer-like structure with 20-30 or so colonies inside. I found it a bit restricting in how you could manipulate a colony. Management there is that you take out full frames of honey and add empty ones back in because there is not room for supers that we are used to. It is a frame-by-frame honey collection, management, varroa treatment, feeding system. But for a small number of colonies in a remote area, it is a protective method. Bees that get out are provided a small window to exit from and get back to their specific colony.

I am sorry your winter survival rate is only about 40%. Winter, spring, summer, fall survival is all about safe, effective Varroa control, which influences the Varroa / Virus complex, and finally the quantity of easily available stored food resources for over wintering. It is not totally about the “container or multiple containers” the bees are in, but more about colony overall health.

Thank you for the Classroom comment Nick.


Jerry, I enjoy your column every month in the American Bee Journal. I was reading ABC&XYZ of Bee Culture and in it they say there are some 16,000 species of bees. Out of all these species, how many are experiencing CCD and are the feral hives having the same loss as the managed ones, or may CCD be something that we may have created?

Thaddeus Brzustowicz


Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) was a condition of managed honey bees that appeared in about 2006 in some colonies managed by commercial beekeepers. We didn’t know what it was in 2006 so we called it a “Disorder”. Now we know it is a combination of 1)Varroa destructor mites (introduced parasite) 2) Viruses vectored by Varroa 3) chemical pesticides honey bees are exposed to, some in the environment and primarily the ones used to control Varroa mites and 4) Poor nutrition.
Other pollinators seem to be affected by loss of habitat, and can certainly be exposed to pesticides in and around our homes, in production Ag. and weather events, but Varroa is unique to honey bees. CCD is a particular “disorder” specific to honey bees. If we could control Varroa and the Varroa/Virus complex safely and sanely without miticides (pesticides), CCD would probably go away in large measure, but beekeepers would continue to experience some winter losses, as they always have. Other pollinators have other things to worry about.

Q Marked Queen Found in Swarm

Yesterday a swarm came into a box I was storing in the backyard. No major event except when I found the queen, she was marked with red, last year’s color.

I am delighted about this. They are Italian bees and should not have the aggression problems most swarms we get in Ventura have.

The surprise is that I know of no other beekeepers anywhere near here. How far will a swarm move from the mother hive?

Bill in California


Pretty cool. Free Bees are nice and even better when the queen is already marked. Swarms generally don’t go any further than they have to based on the reports the scouts have brought back on colony “cavity space and volume” they need and what is available. Swarms fill up with food before the trip, but it is a finite resource, so not using it up in long distance flights helps with the set up and stability of the new swarm in a new cavity. In addition, the new swarm has to begin building comb immediately and brood production needs to start, etc.. My guess is that there is a new beekeeper within 1/2 mile of you who you don’t know about and s/he doesn’t want anybody else to know about. Enjoy.


We live in Vermont and this last winter the temps got down as low as -30. When the weather warmed up, we thought two of our hives had survived the winter. But when we were able to open the hives, we discovered that we had lost all our bees and the bees there were only robbing the honey. We did remove most of the honey frames, but left a couple of honey frames in each hive and did not close the entrance. We are receiving more bees to replace the ones we lost. Therefore, my question is: Should we close up the entrance so the robbing bees cannot get to the remaining honey or don’t worry about it and let the new bees we install resolve the problem themselves?

Thank you for your help!


Jan, you need to ....

The Classroom May 2014

by Jerry Hayes



My students and I thoroughly enjoy your very informational discussions and I frequently use your Q & A’s during our classroom brainstorming sessions with the Apprenticeship Certification Course for Centralia College.

We have heard through the years several versions about: 1) The differences, efficacies, and do’s and don’ts between sugar beet granulated sugars and cane granulated sugars when used as bee food in both liquid and candy board scenarios. 2)When making candy boards and cooking to 250 degrees F, when you add medications, essential oils or Honey B Healthy, does it cook the “goodies” out of those additives? I ask myself, “Self, WWJD?”(What Would Jerry Do?). I will present your answers during my next class session and in future sessions. Thanks for all your hard work on gettin’ the info to all of us and keep it coming buddy. Blue Skies.

Tim Weible
Instructor and Master
Beekeeper Candidate
Centralia, Washington

A have me in Excellent pressure. Thanks Tim
I am super glad that you are teaching, training and sharing with new(er) beekeepers. Having access to real applicable information at this stage is critical for short-term and long-term success however the students view it. Good job.

1) Remember that honey is the best stored food for honey bees because the sugars present in nectar have to be simplified (inverted) in order to get the most energy value from them. Honey bees do this by introducing enzymes and changing the sugar profile. If the beekeeper did not manage to allow the bees to store enough honey, then of course supplementing with other sugars to provide the carbs is a logical decision...most of the time. Chemically sucrose is sucrose is sucrose, regardless of the plant source. But when fed to bees, the sucrose has not yet been inverted to make the simple sugars and this takes a lot of internal resources to utilize the sugar. Sometimes it is a net sum game as it takes as much processing to use them as it returns in energy. That is why using supplemental sugar syrups, although they can help tremendously, have potential drawbacks and collateral damage, too.
As a poor example, think of yourself and if you eat lots of Twinkies. It takes lots of B-Vitamins to process this which, in turn, creates a nutritional deficit in your body where those B-Vitamins would have been used to maintain optimum health.

2) Humans learned to create and control fire for warmth and cooking. When foods are cooked, it breaks down proteins and detoxifies toxins (proteins) which makes it easier for our digestive systems and makes these more bio-available and us healthier and more active.

Heat also drives off volatiles and what we cook smells differently than the uncooked stuff. As another poor example, make a hot beverage like a tea or hot chocolate or ....something. Give it a sniff. You can smell the volatile oils and alcohols that transport “odors” as the heat forces them to evaporate. Now think of a candy board and what may happen to the sugar if it is darkens for a variety of reasons. Put something in it and if the boiling temperature of the additive is less than the 250F you mentioned, it will be driven off, changed molecularly and become something different than you thought it was at the beginning.

Feeding honey bees is sometimes necessary, no doubt about it. Candy boards are like a big Lollipop and if there is enough water condensation collected on it from the colony to dissolve the surface sugars or if the bees have enough saliva to lick it and remove sugar, it can work. Feeding essential oils to a colony in a liquid sugar solution has little effect on direct disease control or health. Do it in a candy board and the value decreases even more.
Lots of things are sold to beekeepers because beekeepers like to do stuff they think helps, so they buy all kinds of food additives because they think it is needed. That is my story and I am sticking with it.

All the best,


Jerry, when I build a queen bank, I use a strong two-story full body hive with a queen excluder in the middle. The queen is placed in the bottom hive and the queens in their cages are placed in the top hive. My question is: How long can you keep queens in a queen bank before they must be placed in their own hive?


In a perfect world, with lots of healthy bees and warm temps and lots of available ‘food’, you can keep them there for a month or so realizing that they become less dependable queens the longer they can’t do what they are biologically programmed to do. In this case less is more.

For longer term storage, when you might need a new queen or help a failing hive, setting up 4 or 5 frame nucs is a great method. Nucs allow the young queen to begin laying, so if you need an emergency queen (complete with brood and young bees), you have it readily available.

Q NUC ’em

Jerry, I have 4 colonies. I was planning on making some splits this spring to bring my beeyard up to 6. That way, if I lose a few over winter, I still have some colonies. However, I was recently reading about overwintering nucs. I’m wondering if it makes more sense to rear queens from my strongest colony and make nucs out of my weakest colony in mid-summer. Do you have any wisdom to share?

St. Louis

You are way ahead of me Jim. Nucs are a terrific option as they can be used to boost a queenless colony by simply plugging in the 4-5 frame nuc into it. Under lots of less-than-perfect conditions they can be overwintered, even in a winter such as we had this past year, but they need adequate stores and maybe insulation just as your larger colonies do.
I would strongly consider it. They are a great insurance policy.


Hi Jerry! My wife and I have a single top-bar beehive on the western side of Grand Junction, Colorado which we do not treat with anything. Last spring the hive experienced severe winter kill with lots of dead bees in the hive and a few live ones sort of roaming around. In May 2013 a fellow beekeeper and mentor trapped a swarm and dropped it in the hive. When we looked last fall, he didn’t think that they were strong enough to survive winter so we left all the honey. Now this spring 2/16/2014 we opened the hive and there are NO bees in it at all. No brood, no dead bees. The honey is still there (in the top 4 inches or so of the comb) as is some pollen, too. I placed some high density Styrofoam insulation boards in the peaked roof of the hive late last fall 11/2/2013 to help with the cold winters we’ve been having lately here. There were bees in the hive then. Did they leave because of the foam boards which may have some sort of odor that we don’t know about? Is this CCD (no bees, no bodies but the food is still there)? Could something else be going on?? Thanks - we enjoy your column in the American Bee Journal and appreciate any thoughts that you might have. Our mentor passed away this winter so we really can’t ask him...

Marget & Rich Schultz

Good Morning to you Marget and Rich. I am at a USDA Summit on Varroa in the D.C. area for the next few days. I hate to sound rude, but do you know what Varroa destructor is? It is a large parasite of honey bees that accidentally found its way from Asia to North America and other continents. Make a fist and put it someplace on your body. Proportionately, this is about how large the Varroa mite is on your honey bees’ bodies, sucking and feeding on their blood (hemolymph), introducing viruses and bacteria as it feeds, causing a collapse in the immune system. It would be like a parasitic rat on you.
There are a variety of partially effective control options that you can use to control Varroa. If you don’t control varroa, your honey bees will not be strong enough, vital enough, and healthy enough to make it through the most difficult season for them…winter. It is not colony collapse disorder (CCD), it is not Styrofoam--it is Varroa. What happens is that honey bees are altruistic, if you will, and on those days in fall and winter and early spring when it is warm enough to fly, the sick and parasitized will leave the colony committing suicide, hoping to protect their sisters from further infection (if I may be allowed to anthropomorphize). But if they are all sick and parasitized, they all leave at certain points and voila, no bees are left in the hive over time.
That is why I am at the USDA Varroa Summit because we are discussing how to control Varroa better to help honey bee health more.
Lots of resources are available to new beekeepers in Colorado. Are you a member of the local association or the state association, the CSBA? Good information and mentors are available to you. Hang in there, but realize beekeeping is a visual sport, so you need to be able to look, compare and sample so you can be a good manager.


Jerry, a quick question if you have a minute. I bought a few used hive bodies last year from a beekeeper I know well. He was always very careful and I don’t think he had any foulbrood, but he’s not around anymore to answer questions. There are a number of old, dried out brood combs with scattered dead brood, like you always see in dead-outs. Is there any way to tell whether such brood died from foulbrood or from mites? I’m scared stiff of foulbrood.

Thanks a lot,
Henry Yoder

Good Morning Henry. I am sitting in the Indianapolis airport hoping to get home today after the Indiana Beekeepers Association Bee School. There were 900 in attendance. Largest state meeting I have ever been to. Amazing!

Henry, if you are afraid of this old comb and diseases like AFB, or viruses, or nosema or varroacides all contaminating the sponge we call beeswax comb, then don’t be cheap. Beekeepers are inherently frugal (cheap) and would rather gamble losing a $300 colony and all frames and comb in the hive than spend a $1.00 or less per sheet on new foundation and beat the Las Vegas odds against them. Don’t gamble Henry. Foundation is cheap...don’t you be.

Take care,

 The Classroom April 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Honey Bee Nutrition... an Evolving Conversation

Jerry, I am studying honey bee nutrition. Frankly I am a bit of a skeptic at this point with what I have found about honey bee nutrition and how it may help honey bee health.
I can find a lot of references that show the negative impact of poor nutrition on bees. What I cannot find is information that characterizes the general nutritional state of bees currently in the US. For example, is there any evidence that the current landscape and beekeeping practices are reducing the quality of nutrition received by many colonies? As a continuation of that, is nutrition a significant factor in the increase of colony losses seen since 2006?
I sometimes think about a human example. Serving healthy meals at a hospital in a well-nourished, developed country will have little impact on the recovery of the patients. However, serving those same meals in a hospital in a malnourished, undeveloped country will likely have a huge impact on the patients’ recoveries.

So for me to be able to say that good nutrition will likely have a significant impact on the colony loss rates, I need to know if the bees are malnourished. I know this is a difficult question to answer experimentally and I’m making a generalization that the state of all colonies across the US is the same. What do we really know?

JM in Missouri

I think nutrition has been one of those elements that we as beekeepers intuitively know is important because it is important to us, our pets, the livestock and wildlife in our backyards, but we really don’t know how to control it for honey bees if needed. Honey bees forage in a 2-3 mile radius of their colony efficiently and access a variety of flowering plants that provide nutrition for the colony. But, sometimes this is not good enough and colonies don’t grow and expand as they should in a perfect world. We then experiment with supplemental food patties that we make or buy from the distributors, not knowing that they are nutritionally incomplete and many times the colony, even if starving, looks on it as trash since honey bees do not find and use ‘food’ in a patty on the top bars. It is not normal. They help (but not much) until real natural pollen is available. Sometimes I get tired of hearing myself talk, so I have asked Dr. Rosalind James to comment on your question(s). I think her answer is great.

A great deal of excellent research has been conducted to identify “the” cause for CCD and general honey bee health declines. We have had some of the best minds in the world working on it, but a single cause has not been found. That is because the cause is from multiple factors and complex interactions. The honey bee industry has been battling severe colony losses for years, and it is due to some new phenomenon, in addition to a great number of old insults (e.g. accidentally imported pests and diseases, pesticide kills, habitat loss). In addition, declines in native bumble bee populations have been well documented by more than one analysis. It is like the situation with the declining amphibians, first noticed by several independently for specific species and locations, before it was recognized as a more general phenomenon. What is the cause? In the case of amphibians, pathogen spread was found, but the picture is more complicated and cannot be ascribed all to one pathogen. And it begs the question, why did the pathogen spread to begin with? So it is with the bees, one reason cannot be found.

However, we know nutrition affects the health of organisms. And we know bees need a nearly constant supply of pollen and sugar. The nutritional details for bees have not been as deeply researched as they have for say, dairy cows (or humans). The value of the agricultural commodity has not provided the kind of funding that has been committed to dairy research. In addition, honey bees live in a colony, and the dynamics are much more complicated than for non-colony organisms. What you see happen to a single worker bee does not directly translate to the colony. The bees feed each other, they move from one caste to another, they have a queen who does all the egg-laying, and colony function is affected by the queen laying eggs fast enough and being healthy enough to assert sufficient chemical control over the workers. Then there are drones--the other side of the reproductive equation. All these dynamics are affected by the quality and rate of nutrients coming into the hive.

No completely satisfactory substitute for pollen has been developed. We get close, but it is never as good as actual pollen. On top of all of that, there are microbial and external enzymatic components to honey bee foodstuffs. Larvae are not fed pollen; they are fed bee bread (a fermented product of the colony). And the reproductive queen does not eat pollen; she eats food excreted by nurse bees. We know a lot about the complexities, but we cannot exactly answer your question. Not the way you or any of those of us who are ‘scientists’ want or would like.

But there is another dimension to your questions. The approach you are suggesting for analyzing the problems are kind of pin-point approaches. It is not an uncommon scientific approach--break things down into researchable elements. Do the bees need weeds in the field? Then, let’s offer them some flowering plants on the margins. Are certain fungicides toxic to bees? Let’s use other fungicides. Over and over throughout American history, we have had to learn that this approach to farming overlooks the complexity of the whole farm and the region around it. It typically does not provide sustainable systems. We do not/should not throw away chemicals, but we do need to reduce our focus on inputs. We are harming ourselves and the environment, and we too easily can get caught in a cycle that leads to an increasing dependence on input agriculture. Agriculture does not have to be a resource sink. As has been said many times in history about agriculture, we need to step back and take a look at the big picture and take a systems approach. Others might call it a holistic approach.
Below is a link to a paper describing to some extent what I mean. It has nothing to do with bees, but it demonstrates a systems approach that might work to reduce weed pressure. In addition, such an approach would lead to a more diverse landscape and reduced tillage. Adding landscape-complexity to a system can stabilize it. Stabilize the soil, reduce nutrient loss due to run off, and improved habitat for bees and other beneficial insects (like natural enemies of pests). Reducing tillage also stabilizes the soil and protects important soil microbial systems. Plus, it reduces labor and fuel costs. And, as far as wild bees are concerned, tillage is bad because most native bees are ground nesters.

George Washington developed a 7-year rotation system for his farm. The idea is not new. I realize problems are associated with it. For example, not all crops have the same value, and the value changes from one year to the next as demand changes, and planting and harvesting equipment are different for different crops (so the farmer might need more equipment of the expensive kind)—these issues have to be weighed in, though, with a big-picture look at things.

Is this all about nutrition? No, but bee nutrition is an important component. As I said earlier, anyone who has ever fed pollen to their honey bees in the spring knows that it improves the size of the colony. Pollen is generally considered a limited resource for bees. Give them more pollen, and their populations will increase. For honey bees, the colony is the honey bee, and bigger is healthier. It is a good measure for colony health, reproductive potential, winter survival, and pollination potential.

Q Hopguard In the Cold

I read somewhere that the Europeans were getting good results from a Hopguard treatment for varroa mites in the winter. I was excited to hear that. It seemed to make sense. The bees have stopped or cut back on brood production, and so the varroa mites that are present would be out in the hive and on the bees where Hopguard would be more effective. But the problem is how do you get Hopguard into the hive in the winter? I live west of the Cascades, in the foothills, in Washington State, and day-time temperatures are often in the thirties or low 40s. It is my understanding that it is not a good idea to inspect a hive under about 55 to 60 degrees. Would it be okay to just take the brood boxes apart long enough to insert Hopguard strips?

Roger Ledbetter
Snoqualmie, WA

For a variety of reasons Hopguard does work the best when varroa are exposed (phoretic) and riding around on adult honey bees and less so for the majority of varroa inside capped cells reproducing. I have thought exactly the same thing as to get Hopguard gooey liquid into or on a cluster and spread around without using the strips that are a challenge at this time of the year. I am unaware of any data to show that if the liquid Hopguard material were available that it would work in this manner. Disruption or disturbance of the cluster by trying to insert Hopguard strips into it might not be the best answer.

I will ask one of the developers of Hopguard this question.

I agree with you - I don’t think I would recommend drizzling liquid Hopguard on the cluster. Even using the strips in winter will potentially cause problems. You will likely kill a lot of bees, disrupt your cluster, lose heat and crash the colony. I sure wouldn’t do it that way in my colonies. Coating the bees in Hopguard will likely kill the bees that get coated.

The newly formulated Hopguard strips will be coming out soon - twice as much product in the strip and it will last longer in the colony.

All the best,

Q Feeding Invert Sugar Syrup

I have 25 gallons of inverted syrup, also called baker’s syrup. I work for a bakery and this was an experimental product from Domino’s that we did not use. It is basically fructose and glucose. I looked it up online and found out that it is basically a manufactured honey. They gave it to me to feed to my bees and I want to make sure it’s safe. Any advice would be welcomed.

Robert Ridge,
Pinnacle, NC

As long as it hasn’t been heated and darkened or opened and has started growing things in it, you will be fine and it will work well. Commercial beekeepers use invert syrup all the time if the price is right as it takes the bees less internal energy to utilize it.
Lucky find. Take Care.


When I compared the results of the study you published with Dr. Amanda Ellis in 2009 titled An Evaluation of Fresh versus Fermented Diets for Honey Bees, you had shown that there was no increase in brood area with the fermented diets. In contrast, in the attached graph published by Diana Sammataro she shows graphically that the bees fed a fermented diet had significantly more brood than the control. Perhaps I am missing a fine point in the research, but it still has me wondering. I sincerely want to understand this topic, but I feel like I am missing something. Can you explain this discrepancy for me? Thank you again for all your advice.

Morris Ostrofsky

No discrepancy Morris. In our 2009 paper we just looked at acceptance of the various diets and which ones might not be considered as trash and not dragged out, but really consumed. We did not measure brood area or production – we simply measured if it would be tolerated — and that is why we had a ”debris” score which no one else has done. And, as you saw, much of the patty-style supplemental diets are dragged out as trash.

The Classroom March 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Swollen Friend
Hi Jerry, I enjoy your column every month. Have you ever heard of someone who is not normally allergic to honey to have a reaction to one crop? I gave a pint of raw wildflower honey to a friend. When he had some on an English muffin, his eyes and lips swelled up. Could it be the honey?

Thanks for any insight you might have.

Bill Lasley
Snowflake, AZ

There are proteins in flower nectar/honey and pollen that a few people can be or may develop an allergy to or are simply toxic to that individual. The pollen grains found in unfiltered, unprocessed honey would be a source of concentrated proteins that could be an allergen to someone sensitive to them. So, I guess he does not swell up when he eats a plain English muffin? I hope he is OK now and that it has not gotten worse. If better, he needs to visit an allergy doctor and be desensitized or stay away from that particular honey and pollen if you can identify the floral source. Does your friend have seasonal sinus allergies to wind-blown pollen in the air? If so, this could have been a precursor to the unfortunate event. Sorry for the awkward moment with your honey. It is one in a million, unless it is you. 

Q Fumagilin

Jerry, I’m confused by something I think I heard you say. You indicate to not medicate unless needed so when would you use Fumagilin? You said if they have a nosema outbreak it’s too late to give them Fumagilin.

Dick in Duluth

The problem is that there are two life stages, if you will, for Nosema--the vegetative stage that infects a cell to make more Nosema and the spore stage that is designed to survive as it is spread around and through and out the gut. Fumagilin doesn’t affect the vegetative or the spore stage at all. It prevents the vegetative stage from commandeering the cell machinery to make more Nosema. Its actual activity is on the honey bee’s individual cells to make them temporarily resistant to Nosema using them to make more Nosema. As you can imagine, Fumagilin is a stressor on the bees themselves as cell machinery is not working normally. Everything is a tradeoff.

So, based on the above when should you treat? How do you know if and when there is a problem? Is it sampling and finding a million spores per bee or some other number or do you simply treat and hope it is at the right time? Fumagilin can work if used at the right time. I simply don’t know how to tell you when the right time is. And, if you use it at the wrong time, it affects honey bee health itself and costs you a lot of money for no value.

Q New Beekeeper and Diseases

I’m a beginning beekeeper near the Mississippi Gulf Coast. I have been trying to get enough hives to help out in my retirement and I obviously love a challenge, with the hive beetles, varroa mites and other pests.

Actually, I had a few hives back in the days when it was much easier to keep them, 1980. Back then I didn’t have time to devote to them, so they just took care of themselves. I took some honey from them and left them what they needed for the winter. No treating for mites twice a year and I didn’t know what a Small Hive Beetle was.

This spring, I had one strong hive, so I made two splits and I bought two nucs for a total of five. Right now I have the one strong hive that I had last year and one that is so weak I don’t think it will make it. Though I haven’t given up yet, I did mention that I like a challenge. I sugar dusted twice during the last year and did not find but a few varroa mites, but when I put the mite strips in, I found out that I had a serious problem with them. I think the weak hive has one of the viruses that are associated with Varroa. I’m currently feeding Tylan to them and the strong hive because I believe they may have American foulbrood (AFB).
Getting to my question, is there any way to sterilize the hive boxes and frames?  What I’m thinking is high heat might kill the spores on the wood without burning everything. The bees can be replaced; I’ve been doing that for the last few years anyway. I could burn everything, but I have a lot of work involved in them. What I’m looking for is a temperature that will kill the spores and not burn up the wood.

If you can help with this question, I sure would appreciate it.

David Edwards
Perkinston, MS

Hey David,
Just as an aside my wife is from Pascagoula, MS and we met at USM. I know exactly where Perk is:)

It is a challenge with honey bees much more than it was in the 80’s for sure—a different world. A short answer to your AFB and sterilization of equipment is don’t worry about woodenware (hive bodies, covers and bottom boards). All of the diseases of honey bees are generally associated with developing brood (larvae and pupae) which means beeswax comb is the reservoir, the sink, the garbage collector for pathogens. It is tough to totally sterilize combs unless you have access to a gamma radiation sterilization facility near you and the price is right. So, if you think you have a full blown AFB event, replace all the combs with new clean comb or foundation. If it is just a few frames, then taking them out and burning the comb and washing off the wooden frame with hot soapy water will be about the best you can do.

The key to healthy colonies is varroa control using as few chemical-based products as possible. Apiguard or Api-Life Var would be my first choices. Hang in there!

Q How to Submit Samples to USDA?

If my leaky memory serves me right, in a previous column you gave out information as to how and where to send a sample of bees for disease testing. Could you please repeat that information?

Thanks so much,
Joe Schultz

Your wish is my command, Joe.

Submission of Samples for Diagnosis:
General Instructions

• Beekeepers, bee businesses, and regultory officials may submit saples.
• Samples are accepted from U.S. states and territories, and from Canada; samples are NOT accepted from other countries. For samples originating from Canada go to
• Include a short description of the problem along with your name, address, phone number or e-mail address.
• There is no charge for this service.
• For additional information, contact Bart Smith by phone at (301) 504-8821 or e-mail:
How to Send Adult Honey Bees
• Send at least 100 bees and if possible, select bees that are dying or that died recently. Decayed bees are not satisfactory for examination.
• Bees should be placed in and soaked with 70% ethyl, methyl, or isopropyl alcohol as soon as possible after collection and packed in leak-proof containers.
• USPS, UPS, and FedEx do not accept shipments containing alcohol.  Just prior to mailing samples, pour off all excess alcohol to meet shipping requirements.
How to send brood samples
• A comb sample should be at least 2 x 2 inches and contain as much of the dead or discolored brood as possible. NO HONEY SHOULD BE PRESENT IN THE SAMPLE.
• The comb can be sent in a paper bag or loosely wrapped in a paper towel, newspaper, etc. and sent in a heavy cardboard box. AVOID wrappings such as plastic, aluminum foil, waxed  paper, tin, glass, etc. because they promote decomposition and the growth of mold.
• If a comb cannot be sent, the probe used to examine a diseased larva in the cell may contain enough material for tests. The probe can be wrapped in paper and sent to the laboratory in an envelope.
Send samples to:
Bee Disease Diagnosis
Bee Research Laboratory
Bldg. 306 Room 316
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
East Beltsville, MD 20705

Q Food Fight

As a third-year beekeeper and avid reader of the ABJ, I find your monthly column insightful and educational. Thank you. I have a question:

Late last year, I removed the honey supers from my two producing hives, and while I had the hives open, immediately applied Apiguard treatments—thinking that if the queens were going to stop laying during the treatment (as they did last year), it would give them all fall to make up for lost time.  Unfortunately, this action precluded me from replacing the supers once the honey was extracted. I elected to expose the extracted supers in my garage and leave the garage doors open to allow the bees access.  Mistake.  Within a day, I had hundreds of dead bees all over the garage floor. Assuming the bees were battling each other for the spoils, I stacked the supers in such a way that the bees could no longer access them and stopped the carnage. A month later, I re-applied the supers to the hives.

Two weeks ago, after waiting as long as I felt I could into the fall, I removed the supers filled with goldenrod honey and immediately applied top feeders. Same issue. Extracted supers sitting in the garage and no way to allow the bees to clean them up. Again, I exposed them to the bees and again, hundreds of dead bees were all over the floor and driveway. I watched for signs of battle but saw none. I’m going to remove the feeders tomorrow and apply the supers to the hives for cleaning. But, any idea what’s killing all my girls? Guess I’m a slow learner! Appreciate your thoughts on the matter.

Yours truly;
Tom Makoujy
Sparta, NJ

Good morning Tom from a meeting on the West Coast. Thank you for the Classroom compliment. It is fun. My experience has been the same Tom. I never put the supers in my garage for free-form cleaning. I always did it away from my house so it wasn’t so crazy. Having free honey, regardless of quantity available, with all its inherent attractive odors, scents and original colony pheromones, engages the competitive nature of all the honey bees in a wide area. Honey Bees are incredibly efficient foragers gauging calorie expenditure to fly someplace to gather low sugar nectar with calorie intake to be sure they are bringing more back than they are using. Provide the final product, honey, with huge concentrated energy reserves, and especially at this time of the year, you have provided a perfect ESPN sporting event called “Robbing”. Only this one allows death. Add in the rough and tumble of collecting/stealing, as several colonies compete for this valuable resource, and deaths occur. If yellow jackets and other wasps participated, deaths go up as they fight for food as well. It is part of the process with this type of outside clean-up.

Comment from Tom
Thank you so much for your timely and insightful response.  I know it’s an over- used phrase, but you truly are a gentleman and a scholar! Your explanation makes complete sense.  I’ve read of “Robbing” but haven’t witnessed it.  It never occurred to me that my girls would attempt to defend it against all comers, even themselves.

I won’t make that mistake again! Thanks again, best wishes and good luck in your new endeavor.

Tom Makoujy


The Classroom February 2014

by Jerry Hayes


Q Formic Acid Revisited
Jerry, in your response to a question in the November 2013 Classroom about the use of liquid formic acid for varroa control, you said that it was a backwards step for beekeepers to soak pads in formic acid when there was a safe, approved, and labeled product: Mite Away Quick Strips. After using this product for the first time in September of 2012 and experiencing a 64% queen loss, we concluded that Quick Strips were a very efficient dequeening tool when used at full dosage. Currently, if our monitoring determines that we need to treat colonies for varroa mites, we return to the practice of using pads we soak in formic acid or use a 1/2 dose of Quick Strips.

Phil Laflamme,
Highlands Honey,
Portland, Ontario, Canada

Hello Phil, I will assume you have contacted the Mite Away Quick Strip folks as they would like to hear about field results. Organic volatile acids have a very narrow window for application and must take into account temperature, humidity, colony size, volume of the hive they are in for successful use. Miss one of those and the whole system falls apart.

I would disagree with you that making your own in this instance is better. There is inconsistency in the active product ingredient, delivery substrate, and the real danger of negative health effects on you and your helpers.

The real problem with any organic acids is how they volatilize, which is not independent of temperature, humidity, and colony size.

Sorry for your bad experience with Mite Away Quick Strips. I hope they made your loss up for you when you told them.

Phil Responds
Jerry - We did contact the manufacturer and their CEO made an onsite visit. We filed a Pesticide Incident Report with the Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Health Canada as did the manufacturer. The CEO admitted that in some cases the product can lead to what he called queen supersedure and felt that the resulting virgins would mate and go on to lead strong colonies. We did not view this incident as supersedure, but rather as a case of emergency queen cell production since we saw numerous small cells on the outside frames (all brood on the inside frames had been killed by the strips), and no queen was present. This happened in September after most drones had been evicted and when we rarely have high enough temperatures for queen mating. For that reason we destroyed all the cells and requeened the colonies with banked queens we had on hand and nucs we had set aside to winter and sell the following spring. There was no compensation from the manufacturer. Our experience with this product at full dosage has not been positive. Our ultimate goal is to breed bees resistant to varroa mites. As we strive for that, we will use management techniques to lower mite populations and formic acid when needed. If we find it necessary to apply formic acid, we plan to continue to prepare our own pads rather than rely on a delivery system that can be dangerous to queen survival.

Phil Laflamme

Jerry responds

Good Morning Phil. I am just back from the Mississippi Beekeepers’ meeting, so I can pay attention better now. A couple things: You did all the right things in reporting and calling people to task and bringing awareness forward. Good job. I am sorry to hear that the manufacturer declined compensation for an outcome that they said could be the result of using their product. Making your own formic acid product also bothers me as it is dangerous, and has inherent delivery problems as well. Please be careful and follow all instructions to the letter. Best of luck to you.

Q Feeding Wrong Corn Syrup
Jerry, our beekeepers’ club covers two counties. We have been discussing the use of corn syrup as a food instead of making syrup from white processed sugar. It had been mentioned that we use only corn syrup (fructose 42). One of our beekeepers used light corn syrup from the grocery store. It apparently caused the death of all three hives!

Could you please explain the difference and what would be considered the best to feed?

Thank you for your information as I am sure it will be useful to a lot of our beekeepers.

David Moyer

Received your letter David. Great question. High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) is actually created by converting dextrose sugar that is present within regular corn syrup into fructose sugar. This process allows the HFCS to taste remarkably sweeter than Corn Syrup. This is why you’ve probably heard of HFCS being used in sodas and fast food. Unlike HFCS, Corn Syrup actually originates from a powder. It is made up of dextrose sugar, which is why it is not quite as sweet as high fructose corn syrup. Interestingly enough, corn syrup is added to some products like envelopes and stamps to deliver a slightly sweetened taste when you use them. That should give you a better idea of how sweet corn syrup is. Despite the fact that it’s not as sweet as high fructose corn syrup, though, corn syrup is still sugar.

From the Karo web site,, here is some other information on “Light Corn Syrup”:

Karo Light Corn Syrup Ingredients List: light corn syrup; salt; vanilla.

Karo Light VS Karo Dark Corn Syrup (What’s the Difference?)--“Karo Light and Dark are close to the same syrups. The difference between the two is the dark syrup includes a couple extra ingredients for color and flavor (One of which is the ingredient molasses)…..”

Then, on the Iowa Corn site, http://www., I found this interesting information about sugar content of several different sweeteners: “High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a sweetener made from corn and can be found in numerous foods and beverages on grocery store shelves in the United States.

High fructose corn syrup is composed of either 42 percent or 55 percent fructose, with the remaining sugars being primarily glucose and higher sugars. In terms of composition, high fructose corn syrup is nearly identical to table sugar (sucrose), which is composed of 50 percent fructose and 50 percent glucose. Glucose is one of the simplest forms of sugar that serves as a building block for most carbohydrates. Fructose is a simple sugar commonly found in fruits and honey.

Whew, you made me learn more than I had intended:) HFCS and Corn Syrup can age and acquire a chemical called hydroxymethylfurfural or HMF which can be toxic to honey bees. Usually this can be seen as a dark discoloration of the normally light colored ‘syrup’.

I doubt that, all things being equal, if pure light corn syrup instead of pure HFCS were used to feed your friend’s colonies that death would have occurred acutely as was described to you. Won’t happen. Something else happened like the feeder used had some funky residue in it or the bees starved when they ran out or it got cold and they could not access the feeder or some other outside stressor was involved?

I hope this helps.

Q Bats in the Beeyard?

I am new to the world of beekeeping, getting my first hive this past spring. I live in east central Florida, and as you might guess, we have a large mosquito population here. When walking our dog around the neighborhood, we often notice bats flying shortly after sundown. I would like to raise a bat house in my yard to attract these flying mosquito eaters. When I have asked local beekeepers about this, I get mixed replies. Some say that bee and bat flight times are separate and there should be no problem. Others tell me that bee and bat flight times overlap and that bats flying then would feast on nectar and pollen laden bees, thus harming the colony. Can you please help me with
this quandary?

Thank you very much,
Tom Stokes

Certainly there might be a tad of overlap between daylight and dark and some uninformed bats may want to sample honey bees…once. Honey bees are big robust and don’t taste all that good because they have a venom sack and this poison just doesn’t sit well. Now add in the possibility that a bat will be stung in the mouth, on its tongue or on the way down and learning is rather quick for the bat that this insect isn’t quite as good as mosquitoes or moths.

I think you are OK. And this is a great way to get rid of mosquitoes.

Q Pollination Services and Honey Bee Health

Firstly, I want to thank you for taking the time to answer my emails and questions about my honey bees. From our previous correspondence, I asked about bees stinging outside the hive. As it turns out, they were not honey bees but Bembicini [sand wasps].

Secondly, I would like to ask you about honey bee health and the effect pollination
services have upon it. From my limited understanding, honey bee health has been in decline. One reason for this is the stress that bees endure from not having the ability to adapt to one environment to thrive in that environment. Instead, honey bees are torn form one place when it becomes a food desert for them, and placed in another with a whole new realm of parasites, disease, and other stressors. Pollination services rely heavily on medicine and chemicals to treat the bees for every disease and mite. The bees are forced to rely on these chemicals and treatments rather than to adapt to a new environment. These may spread to other areas causing new threats for already low numbers of wild hives. I am not saying that pollination services are evil wicked or that almond growers are evil for using pollination services. What I am asking, rather, is if we should take a second look at pollination services and see if they can be improved upon?

So much money from pollination services goes into the treatment for disease and mites that it becomes an extreme expense for pollination companies. I have thought some about this and was wondering what solutions are out there? Personally, and to an extent ignorantly, my solution would be to split hives as they move and leave the splits in the fields. Before this could happen, growers would have to plant other locally occurring plants between the rows like clover that restores the soil (benefiting the farmer and the bees) in order to provide food for the honey bee splits throughout the year. At this point, the farmer would pay the pollination services for the pollination the splits provide and the care of the bees if the pollinator service company did not do so for the farmer. This would promote plant growth allowing for reduced soil erosion, as well as drastically increasing honey bee populations.

When the bees make their first stop in almonds, the beekeepers would work to build up hives to top notch health before splitting the hives. When the almond season is over, the intercropped local plants take over as food sources for the bees, while the mother colonies move on to the citrus fruits and split there. This method may increase production by giving farmers less stressed bees which could be more efficient in their work. This was something I have spent some time thinking about and it most certainly needs to be researched. I am wondering what you think about this method and if it would be beneficial? Is this feasible?

Thank you,
Luke Nitcher

Hello Luke, there have been a lot of conversations similar to what you suggest as to how to provide sufficient naturally and nutritionally complete forage for honey bees and other pollinators--all great ideas. The problem is that the commercial industry that provides colonies for pollination requires an economic scale to be worthwhile, which in turn means 10’s of thousands of colonies per operator. The largest beekeeper in the US has about 100,000 colonies and there are lots more with 8,000, 10,000, 20,000, etc. There is not enough concentrated forage, even in your model, to address this massing of colonies and allow them to forage on planted natural forage.

In addition, the almond grower wants strong colonies, not divides, to be placed in his groves for maximum pollination efficiency. To have such strong colonies in February, the beekeeper must spend a lot of time and money building up his colonies before the pollination season starts.

However, your suggestions regarding planting bee forage are all good and useful ideas that would bring benefit to water retention, erosion, soil fertility and pollination from the lesser known solitary and wild pollinators. However, commercial pollination using the keystone fundamental pollinator of pollinator dependent agriculture-- the Honey Bee--is simply a numbers game for the current model. Commercial beekeeping is just like production agriculture-- concentrated resources within a fixed time frame and dependence on inputs to drive yields.

Luke Responds

What are some things that are being done in the pollination industry that are being done to improve bee health? AReal quick, take a look at these organizations’ web sites--lots of good work going on in a focused way:

The Classroom January 2014

by Jerry Hayes

Q Prepping The Bees

From Baja California Mexico, we are going to have 90 hectares of Brassica (broccoli and cauliflower) this year to be bee pollinated. Last year around 1500 beehives were hired from local beekeepers.
A Brassica specialist gave me your contact in order to ask you some recommendations or best practices for monitoring the bee hives’ quality before putting them into the crop and during the crop development to make sure there is good bee activity.
Here are some of my questions that I hope you can help me with:

A) Number of frames per hive recommended, number of bees per hive, larvae, young brood?
B) Usage of frames for honey or not?
C) Position in field?
D) Usage of attractant products?
E) Hives per hectare, placement and placement in the field?
F) Best practices for screen house or green house?
G) Usage of protein as supplement for bees?
H) General bee hive management.

If you can provide us any information you consider that might be useful to improve our bee pollination, please let us know. We would really appreciate your comments or suggestions.

Thanks and best regards,

Good Morning Armando,
I can give you some generalities and background and opinion if you don’t mind--background which I am sure you already know. Honey bees visit flowers selfishly for nectar (sugary fluid) for energy (carbohydrates) and pollen which provides protein, vitamins, minerals, fats, etc. In the process their hairy bodies pick up the sticky pollen (male element) from one flower and simply by accident deliver it to another flower part so sperm can be released and a seed fertilized that you can harvest. The plant has a plan developed over millions of years and bribes the honey bee with nectar to lure it in so pollen can be transferred and the plant species can reproduce.
Honey bees are looking for the most valuable nectar and pollen reward they can get. As an example, getting pears pollinated is really hard in early spring because the pear nectar only has about 7% sugar in it, while other wild native plants like dandelion have double or triple that amount. Honey bees will be attracted to the highest food reward and it may be not the one you want or had hoped and planned for. In addition, honey bees can forage for their foods in a 2-2.5 mile radius of their colony looking for the most reward. There might be a lot of flower competition in that large of an area.
Then, there are, of course, crop protection products used to keep bad bugs away, which may damage the good bug (the honey bee) directly, if not applied properly and/or some are repellent to pollinators like honey bees.
Until something better comes along, I would encourage you to take a look at what almond growers require for pollination of their crop. It would be a strong standard for you to follow as well. Take a look at the information in the link below.,%20Honey%20Bee%20Colony%20Assessment.pdf

For your specific questions:
A) See Almond requirements
B) If they are collecting honey, it might mean they are not visiting your crop, but something else in a 2-2.5 mile radius because surplus nectar to turn into honey is not generally a feature of broccoli and cauliflower pollination.
C) Since there may be more attractive flowers in the environment than broccoli or cauliflower, placing hives within the interior of the production fields means they have to fly over yours first, which in turn may mean more visits. If there are no alternative attractive crops in the environment, then it may not matter.
D) You can attract a honey bee to a flower with attractants, but it doesn’t mean they will actively collect pollen and pollinate. Any pollination that takes place from pheromone attractants used in the field will be by accident. Better than nothing I suppose, but I wouldn’t bet a lot on it.
E) Because of the less attractive nature of broccoli or cauliflower flowers, overwhelming the location with lots of colonies is better than not having enough. Many growers use 5-10 colonies per hectare. Another strategy is to bring in colonies from 3+ miles away that are new to this site every 10 days, moving the ones there out past the 3 mile range in rotation. What this does is to keep the bees on the crop longer because they have not imprinted on other nectar/pollen sources away from the target crop over time spent in one location. This is, of course, more expensive, but more efficacious for seed production
F) Tough to get honey bees to pollinate in a greenhouse as they are wide foraging insects that use the sun for navigation and in many instances beat themselves to death on the greenhouse roof and walls as they try to orient and get out. There may be other pollinators such as solitary bees, bumble bees or flies that may be better in a greenhouse than honey bees.
G) Depends on how long the bees will be in or on the crop. I would think that the beekeeper would be doing this so his/her colonies will be in good shape when they leave.
H) This should be a series of beekeeper initiatives that I would think they would want to do to keep their colonies healthy.
I hope this helps.


Q Suspicious Minds

I have learned so much from new friends and mentors at my local beekeepers’ club. My new found love of honey bees has really been helped by all my new beekeeper friends. At our monthly meeting last week there was a presentation and discussion of Monsanto and you and all the bad things that are going on. From what I have read about you and what you have printed from people who support you and your length of time as a beekeeper, I am confused because many members of the club are either suspicious or have written you off as not a champion of beekeepers. Who are you?

I will have been at Monsanto for 2 years as you read this. It has been a journey for sure to see if this big company can do something that no other company or government has been able to do for honey bee health. Yes, I think that I have created a reasonable paper trail of why I am here and what has been accomplished so far such as the Honey Bee Advisory Council, Honey Bee Health Summit, Honey Bee Health Coalition, PAm (Project Apis m) support for their great forage project and much more like articles in the American Bee Journal and Bee Culture. No apologies on my part.
I am not a psychologist, nor have I ever played one on TV, but let me share with you experiments conducted by a real psychologist named Solomon Asch on “conformity”. In the world of psychology “conformity” is the probability that an individual will follow some cultural/societal ‘rules or behaviors’.
What Asch did was recruit students and presented them with the two cards, like the ones below, with the lines on them. One card had simply a line on it. The other card had 3 lines on it of different lengths labeled A, B and C. An individual student was brought in, shown the cards and asked to study them. The question was then asked can you tell if the unlabeled line matches the length of any of the lines labeled A,B or C? If so, which labeled line is it, A, B or C?
According to the results, these student participants were able to correctly select the correct line length 98% of the time. Then, the experiment changed. Several more students were brought in to be with the original participant. But, these students were actually assistants of Dr. Asch. They were told to mix it up and when the cards were brought out to select the wrong line answer deliberately. When this happened, 75% of the participants went along with the rest of the group even though they knew they were wrong.
At the end of the experiment participants were asked why they went along with the group. Answers were that even though they knew the answer was wrong they wanted to fit in, not be ridiculed and that other people were smarter or had more experience.
So, my question is: Who are you? Are you an independent thinker who does reading and literature searches or do you only look at the first websites and blogs that pop up or what the folks are saying at the local beekeepers’ meeting? Because it does make a difference.

Q  Honey Bee Health Summit

I just saw on the internet that Monsanto held some kind of a honey bee meeting last year. What was it?

George B.

This was the Honey Bee Health Summit hosted by PAM (Project Apis mellifera) and the Honey Bee Advisory Council (HBAC). Monsanto provided the facilities. About 70 of the leaders and shakers were from honey bee research from USDA and universities, with attendees from EPA, Almond Board, ABF, AHPA, etc., also attending and participating. It was a good, solid 2-day meeting focusing not only on the challenges of honey bee health, but how to bring all these disparate groups together to link arms and move forward positively as a united front. All of the presentations were videoed and are available at

Q  Animal, Vegetable or Mineral?

I am 10 years old and sometimes my sisters and I play animal, vegetable (plants), mineral. One day it was my dad’s turn to think of something and he thought of honey. We tried really hard to work out what he had thought of, but we couldn’t work it out because he didn’t know whether it was an animal, vegetable, or mineral. I think it could be animal because honey is made by bees. I think it could be a vegetable because it is made of plants and contains pollen. I think it could be a mineral because it is not and never was alive.
So my question is: Is honey an animal, vegetable, or mineral?

Kind regards,
Carissa Lucas

Nectar is specially designed plant sap secreted from organs in a flower called nectaries that concentrate sugars to attract and encourage pollinators such as honey bees to visit and by design or accident take pollen from one flower to the other for seed fertilization. It is a reproductive bribe by the plant. These nectars also have various minerals in them, just as the sap in the plant does from the soil it is living from transporting water up and to the plant itself. Nectar in its pure form is, of course, a vegetable product as it is ‘manufactured’ in the plant. Honey bees can consume nectar directly, but they are what is called a temperate insect. Temperate insects come from places that have a long cold winter. For honey bees, that are one of only a few insects that maintain large social colonies year round, that means food has to be stored somehow to last through a flowerless and nectarless winter. Honey bees dehydrate and add enzymes to nectar to change the sugar content ratios for storage, and evaporate water from the nectar to a point where it will not allow fungi, bacteria, yeasts or other organisms to live and multiply. This allows the honey to be preserved for months at a time. Honey changes over time as the enzymes keep the honey from aging too rapidly. The honey stored by honey bees this summer, if not eaten, will be a bit different if it lasts until April.
I think honey originates from a plant (vegetable), is converted by an insect (animal) and has lots of minerals in it from the soil that the plant lived in. But it is none of those. It provides for a unique partnership between flowering nectar-producing plants and an incredibly important insect with which we can interact for our mutual benefit. Honey is super special, one of a kind, unique and a simply wonderful taste of summer.

Q Hive Beetles and Varroa

Here in north Georgia we have serious problems with hive beetles in combination with Varroa mites. We also have four distinct seasons. In the winter, when it’s cold and all the bees are in their cluster with the mature mites and hive beetles mixed together and no brood, it would seem to be a good time to treat the hive. Is there any treatment method that is suitable for use at this time? I enjoy and learn from your column every month and look forward to seeing an answer there.

Ralph Bruce

Thank you for the Classroom compliment. Let me weave around a bit and see if I can combine personal opinion and fact and set the stage if you will.
I have been around pre-varroa and now of course post-varroa. The best thing we could come up 30 years ago was to introduce ‘pesticides’ designed to kill mites in an insect’s nest...the honey bee colony, in order to kill a bad bug (varroa) on an insect (honey bee). As I have mentioned in previous articles, trying to kill a little bug (varroa) on a big bug (honey bee) is imperfect at best. But, that is all we had/have. We have been impacting honey bee health for 30 years by applying pesticides in the hive to control Varroa. Goofy.
Two-thirds of all mites are generally behind capped brood cells reproducing. But, as you say, as fall approaches and winter begins, there is no brood or extremely small amounts in a four-season temperate climate. That means that for this tropical honey bee (Apis cerana) parasite that made its biological jump to Apis mellifera, a temperate climate European honey bee version, it has to figure out a way to survive until the queen begins laying and it can once again use these life stages to reproduce on. Varroa does this simply by riding around and feeding on and keeping warm with honey bees that are clustering.
They are exposed (phoretic) and since they are not protected behind a capped brood cell, perhaps impacting them at this stage would help. And it would or can be, but one has to be extremely careful that the cluster is not disturbed, broken up or the bees impacted by the chemical miticides used to try to control these phoretic varroa. That is why many times beekeepers apply varroa controls in late summer or early fall over several brood cycles as per label directions, while the colony is beginning biological and physiological changes that will allow them to “overwinter” successfully. Applying chemical pesticide/miticides during winter is a gamble. Being a pesticide will it make the bees a little sick or will it break up the cluster or impact pheromone communication or...many other things which may mean they do not make it to April?
Winter is the toughest season for honey bees. Getting them healthy and parasite and disease mostly free before winter approaches in full force is the goal. Varroa treatments in late summer or early fall and/or early spring before brood rearing gets into 100% full swing are the best times.
With Varroa you are trying to kill a little tropical bug on a big bug. With Small Hive Beetles (SHB) you are trying to kill, slow down a secondary tropical predator and a really big bug, in comparison to a honey bee, in a honey bee nest (home). The SHB is designed to be a smooth, tough, not easily damaged beetle. Honey bees can’t pick it up, sting it or grab it. All they can do is harass it and hopefully in the harassment process the SHB will want to get away and hide in a SHB “fall trap”, you have provided, where they walk in or fall in some vegetable oil and meet their demise. There are also some instructions on how to use a varroa mite strip and build a device that will expose the SHB to the pesticide. And there are the usual web site locations by self-described beekeeper experts that condone using various roach and ant poison bait traps with unapproved more dangerous pesticides in a bee hive. The problem with these devices, besides being illegal, is that SHB do not just stay in the ‘poison trap’. When the harassment pressure is off, they emerge and walk around looking for a meal and scoping out the place to see if they can start laying eggs. When they do this, they have the labeled and off-label pesticides on their feet, legs, bodies and track it around the colony, exposing the colony to additional chemical stressors. Beeswax is a chemical sponge and these chemicals do not go away. There have been many reports of queens being sterilized by one of the chemicals found in these off-label uses of ant and roach traps. SHB control in winter is difficult for the reasons above. Use a SHB “fall trap” and keep the colony strong and you will be in better shape.
I hope this all makes sense.

Q Supplements

Hi Jerry, enjoyed your answer about pollen supplement in the Nov. ABJ. I hope it gets more research going on this subject. I’ve been using pollen substitute soft patties and like them, but you’ve got me thinking I should eliminate the foreign matter (soy flour, brewers yeast) and make a patty out of queen cage candy and bee pollen? Keep up the good work!

Steve Wernett

Thank you for the compliment Steve. Some roughage is good in the spring and summer as a honey bee digestive system is designed to process roughage that comes from pollen. Pollen is the vital ‘male’ part of plant reproduction. It contains sperm that transfers genetic information that allows a plant to use successful genes to survive and experiment with different gene mutation combinations. Without it life stops for most seed-producing plants. The plant sperm is in a robust container called the Exine, the pollen grain. The definition of Exine is “the decay-resistant outer coating of a pollen grain or spore.” Geologists and anthropologists get a lot of information about climate, environment and our ancestors by looking at the pollen grains found in excavations and in fossils because the pollen exine is so tough it can look the same as it did a million years ago and scientists can deduce what was blooming, what the climate was like and what our ancestors were eating.
The contents of a pollen grain will decay, rot and breakdown over time from UV, heat, moisture, bacteria, etc., but not the exine. So, this brings up two things, one is honey bees can’t or have a really hard time getting any nutritional benefit from intact pollen grains. The food value is locked up inside the pollen grain. Honey bees do not have chewing, crunching mouths parts that can break open the pollen grains and release the nutrition inside. That is why honey bees have learned to make ‘beebread’ using fermentation organisms to get the nutrition out and preserve the beebread for use later. Honey bees do not eat pollen; they eat beebread for complete nutrition. As you can imagine, there is a fair amount of natural roughage or foreign matter inherent in the natural process with an indestructible Exine. Unless you can quickly collect pollen, grind up the pollen and freeze it to -80F, the nutritional value is not available or disappears surprisingly rapidly. Soy, yeast, dried egg, goat milk, etc., have all been used as sources of vitamins, minerals, lipids, protein and other micro-nutrients to feed bees. The problem is that they are incomplete sources of nutrition for honey bees. It has some nutrition, but is not complete and self-sustaining for honey bee nutrition.
As you can see, Steve, it is not as easy as using or substituting one thing for another to get full value. Somebody will come up with a nutritionally complete honey bee diet one day; I just don’t know who or when.

Q To Drill or Not To Drill

I have a question regarding overwintering 2 hives, near Longmont, Colorado. One is a new hive this year with a small population of bees; the other is a mature large population hive. Before it turned cold, the larger hive was trying its best to rob from the smaller one. I installed an entrance reducer to cut down on the robbing. Other beekeepers in the area advised me to drill a 9/16 inch hole near the top of each hive for cleansing flights in deep snow, and added ventilation. I’m concerned this hole would be perfect for robbers to sneak into the smaller hive on warmer winter days. Would you drill, or just leave them the lower entrance?


Small and weak is not a good thing at this time of the year (November). Anything less than probably 5 pounds of bees, 50+ pounds of stored food and a few frames of stored bee bread plus varroa treatments in August, no other diseases and coupled with a ‘normal’ Colorado winter is most likely going to result in death of any colony not meeting these standards.
You can experiment and see if you can nurse these ‘welfare’ bees through the winter or combine them with the larger colony to add to their critical mass.
One of the hardest things in beekeeping is knowing when to take your losses, which always occur. I think of the words to an old Kenny Rogers song, “...You gotta know when to hold them, know when to fold them, know when to walk away, know when to run.”
And to your actual question, no sense in drilling holes in perfectly good equipment. Just prop the corner of the lid up with a pencil size stick to help remove moisture and provide an upper entrance.

Q Goldenrod Nectar

I’ve got a question for you concerning goldenrod and its nectar. Our local association in Pennsylvania had a guest speaker come out and discuss bee survival through the winter. It was great and very informative for our members. I had the opportunity to speak with him after our meeting and he mentioned something that never occurred to me. He said that the area we are from (Philadelphia, Penn.) won’t provide a goldenrod nectar because the goldenrod plants that produce the nectars for honey bees must live 1000 feet above sea level. I know there are many different types of goldenrod and only a few give nectar.
It wouldn’t surprise me, given the fact that our bees need to be fed in the fall to survive winter. And, we have goldenrod in our area that could help fill the boxes for winter. Have you ever heard of such a thing? Any thoughts on your part?

Bob from Pennsylvania

Sorry for the late reply Robert. I am traveling and in the Denver airport at present. I am certainly not a botanist or a goldenrod expert. There are various varieties of what we call goldenrod. Nectar secretion is tied to the variety, soil moisture, ph, temperature, etc. In my former state of Florida goldenrod contributed to honey storage for winter, even as mild as winter was in north Florida. The altitude was about 100 ft. above sea level.
Dr. Diana CoxFoster at Penn State may not know, but she probably would know a botanist who might have an answer to this question. You might also check with Dr. George Ayers, retired, Michigan State University. He is probably the foremost honey plants expert in the United States at this time and writes our monthly honey plants column every month.