Cover Story archive
Mead: The Old Fashioned Way
by William Blomstedt
Mead is the spit of the gods.
Norse legend has it that to end the Æsir-Vanir War, the gods gathered together and expectorated in a vat. From this spittle they created a man named Kvisar, a man so wise there was no question he could not answer, and this spittle-man traveled the world bestowing the gods’ wisdom on mankind. This wisdom apparently did not extend to avoiding ambushes, for one day Kvisar was killed while visiting a pair of dwarfs named Fjalar and Galar. The dwarfs mixed Kvisar’s blood with a vat of honey and produced a potent beverage called the “Mead of Poetry,” which translates as “Inspirer of Wisdom.” Anyone who imbibed this drink became an instant “skald” (scholar) and could pen lyrics beyond imagination or make sound arguments out of jumbled thoughts. Thankfully, the mead did not stay in the hands of the dwarfs. To cut a long saga short, it changed hands several times until Odin, one of the most famous Germanic gods, tricked and/or seduced the maiden who was assigned to guard the mead. After three exuberant nights, he swallowed as much mead as he could, turned into a bird, and flew away. When the maiden’s father heard of this, he also transmogrified into a bird and chased after him. But before Odin could be caught, some of the mead dribbled from his mouth and fell down into the human world. There, the humans took a great interest in the mead and the inspiration found in it. The term “Nectar of the Gods” is merely a more palatable term for god spit.1
A more down-to-earth explanation (but no less exciting) is Western History’s theory on the first encounter with mead. It is thought that mead was the first alcoholic drink. This is because it is very simple to create. When honey mixes with water in an open environment, air-borne yeasts are introduced and they begin turning the sugar into alcohol – fermentation. One can imagine the scenario: early hunter-gatherers came upon a hollow tree filled with a strange, bubbling water. This hollow formerly held a colony of bees, but something happened which allowed the water to flow into the cavity. Though the water smelled strange, one of the brave hunters tried it. The rest of the band watched him to see what happened, and when he started laughing and dancing about, they drank the rest and all felt drunk for the first time in human history.
That incident happened many, many thousands of years ago. From there, techniques of creating alcohol rose independently and repeatedly throughout cultures. This is thanks to tiny microorganisms which change the original food’s sugars into acids, gases or alcohol. Fermented foods, in general, play a base role in a culture’s identity: the wine and cheese of France, beer and sauerkraut of Germany, olives and bread of Italy, soy sauce and miso of Japan. Add to this already noteworthy list: coffee, chocolate, tea, yogurt, and you see we how much we need to thank these busy little yeasts.
The original purpose of fermentation was to preserve food in a time when refrigeration was non-existent. Salt and a lack of oxygen allowed foods to keep for much longer time periods. Though people had been preserving food for as long as memory, they didn’t know what was physically happening to the food. The scientists of yore knew nothing of germs, yeasts and bacteria, instead believing in the phenomenon of spontaneous generation: maggots appearing magically in dead flesh, the goose from the goose barnacle and anchovies from sea foam, to name a few. But this theory fizzled with Louis Pasteur, the French chemist of Pasteurization fame, who wrote that fermentation was not death or putrefaction, but a correlative of life.
Pasteur’s confirmation of the germ theory helped kindle mankind’s fear of them. America, especially, was built on an idea of cleanliness, as immigrants left the dirty hovels of the Old World to find cleaner, open spaces. This mindset has evolved to the present day where there is a drive for complete domination of bacteria, as witnessed by the ridiculous hand sanitizer craze (and subsequent warnings about the creation of superbacteria). But these small creatures are everywhere – in the air we breathe and in every bite we take – and are imperative to all of our physical processes. More creatures live in a linear centimeter of our colon than all the humans that have ever been born, quipped Neil deGrasse Tyson.
My interest in fermenting began with a housemate who kept a handful of strange, bubbling jars above the fridge. He was a sourdough master, always feeding and stirring his beloved starter, and every now and then he would whip up a batch of tangy pancakes for the house. Through him I realized that while tasting your own food-creations is satisfying, making them is even more so. Later on I came to realize a fermentation project is a bit like ...
Holliday Dining Along the Danube
by T'Lee Sollenberger
The winding, picturesque Danube River begins its journey from its headwaters in the Black Forest at Donaueschingen, Germany as two little streams merge to become Europe’s second longest river. The Danube slices through mountains, forests, farmlands, vineyards and floodplains, touching countless villages, cities and the countries of Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Moldavia and Ukraine, before emptying beyond the Iron Gate hydroelectric dam in Romania and becoming the Danube delta, an international wildlife sanctuary bordering the Black Sea.
Many civilizations lived, traded, sailed and warred along the Danube including the Greeks, Romans, Etruscans, Celts and Visigoths, the Mongol hordes and the Slavs. Later on the Ottoman and Austro-Hapsburg Empires conquered and stamped their cultural and culinary influences on the countries in their servitude. This included the importation of chefs, spices, vegetables, fruits and animals from their respective homelands.
Like the Danube, the tradition of Christmas begins in Germany on Advent night of December 6th, when St. Nicholas brings good children sweets and small toys. People dress up as the Bishop of Bari—St. Nicholas or Krampus, (the Austrian equivalent) and roam the streets in celebration. The traditional bedecked Tannenbaum or fir tree is the epitome of the holy days, a tradition brought to the United States by our German forbearers.
In the traditional recipes I have adapted, honey is the main sweetener used to flavor the various dishes. All countries along the Danube historically used honey in marinades and sauces, as a preservative for meat, in beverages, fruit soups and in sweet desserts like crepes, cakes, cookies, dumplings, strudels, breads and puddings, but to lesser degrees in main dishes and appetizers.I think you will find these dishes to be wonderful additions to your holiday fare as they take little time to prepare and yet showcase the inventiveness of various Danube countries in creating gastronomic delights with commonly grown produce, meat and seafood. Enjoy!
AUSTRIAN CUCUMBER CRAB SALAD
Fresh and saltwater seafood of various varieties are found all along the Danube to the Black Sea. Cucumber salads are typical of many Danube countries usually served before the main course or as an appetizer.
chef’s knife or crinkle cutter
1 Tbsp salt
4 tsp honey ....
by Andrew Jones
The 2014 beekeeping season will long be remembered for the need for crisis intervention in much of Central Pennsylvania. Winter losses in the region were catastrophic. The season started on a bad note with a spring that came late, and to add insult to injury, fall came early. There were too many days of warm weather after the flowers had long died off before the temperatures settled into the thirties and the bees clustered. As the colonies remained active, food stores declined. By mid-December, many of the hives were in trouble.
In all my years of keeping bees this was a curve ball I never had to swing at. I knew I had to feed the bees for the next three months or suffer heavy losses. Fondant (see sidebar article) was my choice as a food source since it could be placed above the clusters and the bees would have easy access to it, and unlike syrup, it would not add humidity to the hive. Most importantly, at temperatures below freezing the bags could be placed quickly, leaving the hive open for only a short time. Fondant could also be easily packed into a backpack and carried into yards that were snowed in.
One big advantage of fondant is the ability to mold it. It is easily adapted to feeding nucs, shallow hive bodies, or Warre hives. It can even be inserted in place of a frame. The major down side of using fondant is the bees tend to draw out comb in the empty spaces around it. This can be minimized by draping grain sacks over the fondant, and inspecting at two or three week intervals. Placing the fondant in oversized zip loc bags that cover most of the tops of the frames will also prevent the bees from drawing out comb. Another drawback of fondant is that once it dries, the bees do not have much use for it. Eventually it can be dissolved in water, but that is counter-productive, so keeping it from drying is important. Placing it closeable plastic bags accomplishes this.
All that is needed to prepare the fondant is a flat surface (a couple of deeps with a telescoping cover work quite well), a bag of pollen substitute like Dadant’s AP23 or Mann Lake’s Ultra Bee Dry, plastic zip loc bags, and a machete. The machete will easily slice through a block of fondant at room temperature. Use pollen substitute where you are placing the machete blade. Keep a steady downward pressure on the machete and withdraw it and add more pollen substitute if the blade starts to stick. Once the slab is free of the block, cut it in half, powder both sides and the ends and slide it into a large zip lock bag. The coating of pollen substitute prevents it from sticking to the sides of the bag. Zip the bag up, but do not seal it completely. The fondant is very malleable and you can flatten it out to fill the bag. Once that is done, remove the excess air and seal the bag by completely closing the zip lock. This will keep it from drying out and the fondant will store for months.
Now the bags are ready for use. It is necessary to ...
Honey Bee Genetics
by Peter Loring Borst
An exact determination of the laws of heredity will probably work more change in man’s outlook on the world, and in his power over nature, than any other advance in natural knowledge that can be foreseen (Bateson, 1900).
The idea of genetics came about before anyone really knew what a gene, if there were such a thing, might be. The breakthroughs that contributed to the concept occurred in the 1800s. Three men were critical in forming the new ideas: Mendel, Darwin and Dzierzon. If they had been communicating as freely as we are now, the ideas might have developed more quickly. Mendel is famous for his studies with pea plants; it is less well known that he also experimented with bees.
People understood that heredity was significant in all the known plants and animals. Darwin took the ideas of breeding and heredity and applied them to the question of evolution. He realized that different species were related, despite not being able to breed with each other. Could there be common ancestors from which different species descended? Dzierzon showed that the male honey bee arose when an egg grew up without being fertilized. In other words, without the genetic contribution from a father, no female bees would develop. These three discoveries laid the ground for our later understanding of honey bee genetics.
I have proposed the terms ‘gene’ and ‘genotype’… to be used in the science of genetics. The ‘gene’ is nothing but a very applicable little word, easily combined with others, and hence it may be useful as an expression for the ‘unit-factors’, ‘elements’ or ‘allelomorphs’ in the gametes, demonstrated by modern Mendelian researches (Johannsen, 1911).
Breeding of animals has been going on for millennia, of course, without anyone knowing the underlying mechanisms. Most of the plants and animals we enjoy now were “domesticated” in the distant past. Probably, people thought of breeding bees long before they had any idea how to proceed. The first real thrust in bee breeding was simply to find out what was already out there and pick from that to find the most suitable varieties. This led to the changeover in the United States from the traditional European black bee to the use of Italian bees. These had a reputation of being more manageable and resistant to brood disease. Bee researcher Walter Rothenbuhler stated in 1958: “It must be concluded that importation of races, from about 1860 to perhaps 1910, served to provide better bees for beekeepers in this country.”
At the same time, the study of heredity and genetics interested biologists for other than economic reasons. The need for better breeding and the desire to expand our understanding of biology have worked hand in hand to bring us to where we are now. In 1910, Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson was invited to write an introduction to the American Breeders Magazine. In his short introduction, Wilson noted the important potential that lay in the new approach to animal and plant breeding:
The science of genetics is fundamental for all agriculture. By purely empirical methods breeders have brought certain of the domestic animals to a high state of development. But an exact and comprehensive knowledge of how these results have been attained, and may be attained again, is, in general, lacking. In the last decade definite knowledge of the laws of inheritance has made greater advance than in the entire previous history of mankind (Wilson, 1910).
Statement of the Problem
As beekeepers all know, breeding bees is not the same as breeding other livestock. One cannot simply select the sire and dam, on the basis of fine attributes, and propagate bees which closely resemble the parents, bearing the best characters of each. Early writers promoted the idea of “breeding from the best” – choosing colonies that excelled in one way or another and raising daughters from those. This was certainly an improvement on simply relying on swarms to increase one’s holdings.
In the 1880s, Gilbert Doolittle, of Borodino NY, perfected a technique for propagating queens from selected colonies. His method forms the basis of queen production today. It consists of moving newly hatched bee larvae from worker cells into preformed queen cells so that thousands of daughter queens can be raised from a selected breeder. Doolittle: “Right here I wish to say, that only the best of tested Queens should be used as Queen-mothers – Queens known to possess all the desirable requisites that make a good Queen.” Queen breeders were able to select for external characteristics such as color, but found other characters to be more elusive. One of the chief reasons for this is the lack of control over the male line.
This changed in the early twentieth century. In his 1932 USDA pamphlet, W. J. Nolan described the technique of using a pipette to take semen from selected drone bees and use it to inseminate queen bees. He announced: “The way has been opened for the investigator in any locality to keep pure stock of various races and strains as well as to develop special strains of the honeybee.” He acknowledged that this tool would remain in the hands of skilled technicians for the time being and commercial beekeepers would continue to use established methods.
About this same time, a highly ambitious and focused beekeeper was perfecting bee breeding along conventional lines. I am referring to the legendary Brother Adam, the Benedictine monk of Buckfast Abbey. Realizing the need for control over both the male and female genetic contributions, he established an isolated mating station in Dartmoor, an area of moorland in south Devon, England which was sufficiently far from any other hives. Brother Adam traveled throughout Europe and parts of Asia and Africa to find breeding stock to incorporate in his experiments. He is credited both with advancing our understanding of honey bee genetics and – of accelerating the demise of the native honey bees of the British Isles.
Into the 1950s
I already mentioned Walter Rothenbuhler. He was one of many people who focused intently on honey bee genetics. The list is long, but would have to include O. W. Park, Otto Mackensen, Friedrich Ruttner, Harry Laidlaw and Warwick Kerr, to name but a few. This last name will forever be associated with the most instructive example of a conventional breeding experiment which had monumental unforeseen consequences. Perhaps it is worth digressing a bit to discuss what was intended and what took place. Dr. Kerr rightly observed that the European bee never did well in the tropical regions such as Brazil. He reasoned that a more suitable honey bee could be found in Africa, situated as it was directly across the Atlantic from Brazil. After many false starts, African queen bees were brought to Brazil and what happened next is not clear. The story goes that the queens were unwittingly released, but it is just as likely that queens were distributed by the researchers. In any case, they thrived and multiplied, and in a few decades expanded their territory from Argentina to the United States. The bees are definitely vigorous, and industrious, but with an excessive tendency to go into stinging frenzies, sometimes killing livestock in the vicinity of the hives.
However, the most important lesson is one of genetics and heredity – learned the hard way. Kerr and his colleagues hoped African and European bees would mate and produce a hybrid bee with showed the good characters of both subspecies. This idea was based on other experience, such as that of Brother Adam, who had crossed the Italian bee and the native bee of England, producing a vigorous hybrid with a calmer demeanor than the traditional English black bee. Actually, however, the crosses resulting from the introduction of the African bee into the Americas are mostly like the original African stock. Clearly, there was more to be learned about honey bee genetics.
This dramatic multiplication and spread of African genes is explained only by the assumption that their selective advantage was so overwhelming that they did not give the European genes the least chance. The Africanized bees proceeded 300 km and more per year, showing that they were adapted to the tropical environment of America as well as to that of Africa. For the Iberian bees, the 300 years after their importation was too short to develop efficient adaptations (Rinderer, 1986).
Understanding Honey Bee Genetics
The basics of honey bee genetics are not too different from what we learned in school: males contribute sperm, and females produce eggs. In ordinary meiosis, germ cells divide and the chromosome pairs separate. When a new life is formed, it receives one...
Sounds of the Hive - Part 1
by M.E.A. McNeil
Deaf: That’s how text books long summed up the hearing of honey bees. As it turns out, humans were using their own hearing to make the definition. Now it is being revealed that bees live in a world of sound that goes beyond our range – just as bees see ultraviolet light invisible to humans.
Bees, as social insects with divisions of labor, require cooperation. Cooperation requires communication, but most of the life of a colony takes place in a dark hive. Vision, important for orientation and navigation outside the nest, is useless inside. It was long thought that communication within the hive was based only on chemical signals: They do play a vital part, and understanding of the complexity of pheromones is growing. But, in addition, many sound signals have been identified, and science is beginning to decode what the bees are signaling there in the darkness.
For centuries it was known that bees somehow communicate about forage, but it was a mystery until the 1940’s, when Karl von Frisch followed foragers through the rubble of war-ruined Munich to understand the significance of bee dances. For the next decades, most scientists believed that messages were relayed by silent movement.
In the 1960s, two researchers independently discovered that dancers emit low-frequency sounds -- Adrian Wenner of UC Santa Barbara, and Harald Esch at the University of Munich. Their assertion that the bees use sound to communicate fell, as it were, on deaf ears, as the pervasive belief was that bees could not hear.
Sound is vibration that travels through a medium -- most often air, but for the bees, comb, too. Vibration causes molecules in the medium to pulse outward, colliding with nearby molecules, creating waves. Humans hear by detecting the resulting oscillations in pressure. Bees detect air particle movements. Because traveling sound waves have both components, either can be used in sound perception.
Sound waves are measured by their frequency in Hertz, or cycles per second. The frequency of sound waves is heard as pitch; a higher wave frequency creates a higher pitch. Musical notes correspond to particular frequencies of those waves: for example, an orchestra tunes to the A tone, which has the frequency of 440 Hz. Honey bees produce many frequencies of vibration and sound – from less than 10 to more than 1000 Hz. So far it has been shown that they can detect sound frequencies up to about 500 Hz. How much of this spectrum is used for communication is unknown. It is thought that bees produce vibrations and sounds they do not use or even detect, but some researchers are banking on the fact that whether or not the bees use them, some of these sounds may provide valuable information about the colony.
The most familiar bee sound is the buzz that comes from wing movement: the larger the bee, the slower the wingbeat and the lower the pitch of the resulting buzz. The often-quoted rate of honey bee wing beats is 11,400 times per minute, but beekeepers know very well that the sound varies with circumstance, individual colony and even subspecies; reports range from 190 Hz to 250 Hz. Howard Kerr at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory found the wing beat frequency of Africanized bees to be about 50 Hz higher in pitch than that of European bees. Perhaps they are that much smaller.
As insect wings beat, they create turbulence in the air. Like the wake of a ship or eddies behind a plane, this turbulence has enough stability to capture pheromones for chemical signaling, according to researcher Jurgen Tautz – as seen in fanning.
Experienced beekeepers recognize sounds as they work bees: “You hear and see personalities -- agitated, angry, hungry, calm,” said Bonnie Morse. “When you open splits, you know who went with the queen and who stayed,” said John Jacobs.
When she works bees, Kaat Byrd, a nearly deaf beekeeper, prefers to remove her hearing devices to eliminate the confusion of sounds. She moves her hands in silence: “carefully cracking the lid of the hive creates a roaring-rumbling surge of vibration…”. Then, if all is well, the bees return to a gentle rhythm; otherwise Byrd can tangibly feel distress. “Placing a frame of eggs and young brood into a queenless colony almost instantly soothes the angry and anxious vibe…”
“The decibel level is above 65 if the bees are queenless,” said Diana Sammataro, now a retired USDA entomologist. “They are more agitated and more runny, but it can sound similar if they have been disturbed by an animal.”
In response to an intruder, guard bees rock forward and issue a short burst of sound, repeating these warning bursts. When the hive is jarred, their collective reaction is sharp, loud buzzing, followed by faint beeps from workers in the hive at about 500 Hz. Wenner observed that the bees appeared to be soothed by the audio signal, and found that disturbed bees were quieted when he played that recorded sound.
“We can’t hear a lot of the vibrations that the bees give off, but we can hear some of them” said Juliana Rangel, assistant professor of Entomology at Texas A&M University. It has long been known that bees respond to vibrations in the comb, also known as substrate-borne sound -- for example, they respond to striking a hive by moving upward, even absconding. But it is relatively recently that it has been shown that bees can perceive airborne sound as well.
Hearing in honey bees was researched in the 1980s by William Towne and Wolfgang Kirchner, who showed that bees can detect ...
Taking Measure of Bee Space
by Peter Loring Borst
The Reverend Lorenzo Langstroth is remembered chiefly for the hive that bears his name, the Langstroth hive. However, its design is based on his most important discovery: bee space. What is this space and what is so important about it?
A Little History
People have been aware of this space for as long as honey bees have been kept in hives. The Greeks equipped hives with bars under which the bees were induced to build their combs, giving beekeepers a significant amount of control. These hives were similar to present day “top bar hives.” With such hives, the beekeeper can inspect the brood, find the queen, remove honey, and even make divisions by removing combs of brood and bees.
In short, most of the activities we do with frame hives can be done with bar hives. The chief difficulty with most bar hives is that the bees fasten the combs to the walls of the hive, so that the beekeeper has to cut them out in order to remove them. Cutting combs is annoying to the bees and can cause a lot of honey to run all over the place, making bee work a sticky mess.
Frame hives had been around for a long time, but most of them were difficult to operate. The problem with early frame hives was not just the comb cutting but the fact that bees tend to propolize (glue) everything together and render the various parts unmovable. For example, the famous “leaf-hive” of Huber allowed complete access to the inner workings of the colony. The hive consisted of hinged frames in which the combs were built but when closed, the frames touched each other on all surfaces. There was no outer box; rather, when the hive was closed, the frames became the enclosure. The bees tried to glue everything shut to prevent moisture and pests from entering through any cracks or openings, and to stabilize the hive parts. Essentially, the hive had to be pried open each time. Bees are very annoyed by the cracking and snapping of stuck together hive parts.
The Rev. Langstroth experimented with the many hives of the day; he was an avid reader and knew of the experiments in Europe. He was aware of the hives of Prokopovych, Berlepsch, Dzierzon, and so forth. Many of these were in widespread use, which is a testimony to the ingenuity and determination of beekeeping pioneers. One of the most successful beekeepers of the late 1800s was John Harbison, who was among the first beekeepers in California. He had hundreds of frame hives, which opened from the side like the European hives. Back-opening hives are still common in Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia.
Langstroth was committed to a top-opening hive. His early hives were basically bar hives in wooden boxes. The chief difficulties were, as I mentioned, cutting the combs loose and also, the problem of the bees gluing the cover down to the frames, so that removing the hive top was a challenge. In Langstroth’s early hives, the bars were flush with the top, leaving no spaces between them and the hive cover. One way to get around this problem, which is still employed today, is the use of a quilt or cloth over the top of the frames. Various styles have been used, such as enameled canvas, plastic sheets, or even burlap sacks. The cloth is laid over the top of the frames or bars, and the wooden hive top is placed over this. The hive top is easily removed, without the annoying prying which ensues when the lid is stuck down. The inner cloth is easily peeled back to reveal the frames or bars.
The Eureka Moment
Over time, Langstroth understood that if the clearance between the top bars and the lid was just so, the bees would neither propolize the gap, nor build excess comb, both of which interfere with the ease of opening the hive. In his own words:
Returning late in the afternoon from the apiary, which I had established some two miles from my city home, and pondering, as I had so often done before, how I could get rid of the disagreeable necessity of cutting the attachments of the combs from the walls of the hives, and rejecting, for obvious reasons, the plan of uprights, close fitting (or nearly so) to these walls, the almost self-evident idea of using the same bee-space as in the shallow chamber came into my mind, and in a moment the suspended movable frames, kept at suitable distances from each other and the case containing them, came into being. Seeing by intuition, as it were, the end from the beginning. I could scarcely refrain from shouting out my “Eureka!” in the open streets (Naile, 1942).
Many authors have debated ...
How Adult Small Hive Beetles Can Destroy
Honey Bee Colonies by Themselves
by Dr. Wyatt A. Mangum
In the previous article, we covered basic small hive beetle biology. This article concentrates more on protecting colonies from small hive beetles and showing how just the adult beetles can destroy small-sized colonies.
Keeping colonies strong is the general recommendation for protecting them from small hive beetle invasion of their brood combs. However in the current complicated world of bee management, plagued with miticide-resistant varroa mites, hindered by failing queens, fraught with bee diseases and pesticides, keeping colonies strong is not always possible. Beetle populations may flare up at the worst possible times when the colonies are weak and vulnerable – hence my recommendation for routine colony inspections, at least once a month.Those inspections should continue all through the summer dearth.
A colony inspection should go down to seeing the trash, if any, on the bottom boards. Just look on the hive floor when a couple of frames are out of the brood chamber because beetle larvae hide in the trash. Make sure the brood nest size is adequate for the recent past and present nectar flow conditions, figured from past seasonal experience and observing the currently healthy brood nests of other colonies. Let-a-lone, “lazy,” and let-nature-take-its course so-called “beekeeping” methods are not appropriate in times of small hive beetles, varroa mites, etc. Beekeepers should inspect their colonies. These inspections need not be massively disruptive. With learned skill, one can open a hive, quickly inspect the colony, and close the hive, before disturbing the bees too much or arousing robber bees.
When colonies become weak in the summer, expect the appearance of beetle larvae, particularly in areas where this pest is present. In Figure 1 we see one of my colonies that became weak in summer heat. Small hive beetle larvae invaded quickly. Those larvae congregate on the hive floor and invade other combs. Thousands of beetle larvae amass in the back corners of the hive away from the light (see Figure 2). The material that appears slick and shiny is the slime the beetle larvae produce. This slime is also found on the combs contaminated by the larvae. Between the wax moths and small hive beetles, the combs decay to eventually a thick black layer of detritus covering the hive floor.
My rule is not to keep colonies in the summer that are weak. I unite weak colonies with other weak colonies or to strong colonies, depending on the original cause of the colony becoming weak. Typically these are colonies whose populations are decreasing and cannot cover all of their combs. The original cause of the colony becoming weak could be a failing old queen or colonies being destroyed by too many varroa mites, or even colonies greatly weakened by excessive after swarming from the spring. These conditions can be corrected if detected early on by a routine colony inspection. Particularly in out-apiaries, located away from the house, not watched frequently, such weak colonies can die, and turn into beetle factories, rearing many thousands of them. Understand however, even with the best beekeeper management, colonies will likely experience small hive beetle immigration from outside of the apiary. The beetles can originate from neighboring feral (unmanaged) colonies expiring in the summer.
One summer, I was called to a wood processing facility where large logging trucks bring cut trees for processing. Somehow they cut and loaded a “bee” tree on one of the many in-coming trucks. When the truck hauling the hot one stopped on the scales before unloading, some bees came out and apparently made a mess of their paper work. The work crew managed to unload the bee tree by itself, away from the hundreds of other trees. Eventually my phone rang. Arriving on site, I saw the bee tree lying on its side after a brutal truck ride. It was after the spring nectar flow. Typically the heavy honeycombs would have scattered, drowning the bees. I figured the colony was probably dead. The few dozen bees circling the tree were merely lucky survivors, their fate delayed. So I did not mind going up to the tree with only a smoker, the other protections a hindrance (not recommended), but I did approach the tree from downwind. (The tree crew thought I was crazy.) When the top of the tree was cut off, the blade cut into the upper part of the hollow, but not into the combs, which began lower down. As I shined my flashlight into the hollow, I did not see bees or comb, the usual sight since I was a kid hunting bee trees. Rather I saw the new reality – a slimy brown glob of thousands and thousands of beetle maggots, white and seething, in constant motion. This was not a bee tree. It was a – beetle tree. Of course, we surmised that was happening out in the woods, but seeing it was a visceral experience. (Also similar to varroa mite immigration increasing in a summer dearth, I would expect small hive beetle immigration to follow a similar pattern, both of them increasing when times are difficult for bees.)
A stunning version of adult small hive beetle immigration occurred in the summer of 2014. I had planned some queen introduction experiments in my bee house, which can hold 30 single-comb observation hives. Usually I have 20 – 30 full size colonies around the bee house, which I use for queen rearing and other projects. Last summer my out-apiaries had all the full size colonies, leaving only about eight observation hive colonies in the bee house to endure adult small hive beetle immigration. July is good time to conduct queen introduction experiments. The dearth occurring at that time makes queen introduction more difficult, which provides a worst-case scenario to overcome.
By that time, my best observation colonies were queen right and covering their combs with normal brood nests and old enough from the spring to be in a “stable” age distribution. In many respects, these observation colonies function like a miniature version of a large colony. In addition, given their small size, think of these observation colonies as mating nucs for rearing queens or possibly very small splits for eventually growing new larger colonies.
The first big symptom of a problem came with too many ...
The Back of a Beekeeper
by William Blomstedt
Warren Taylor is one tough old bird. When I worked for him in Australia two years ago, he was still loading beehives by hand in his 60s. Often with him was his long-time friend Ralph. Ralph had officially retired, but would begrudgingly help drive (and load) during the hectic spring moving season. Watching them lift hives together always made me cringe – knees straight, bent over at the waist, hefting a plugged hive off the ground – it went against everything I have been taught about back health. But both of them had been doing this since long before I was born and I was impressed to see them still throwing hives onto the truck at retirement age.
“Ooomph.” Warren said lifting a hive. “I think we’ll put them on pallets next year.”
“We’re too old for this.” Ralph replied.
The hive clanked against the edge of the truck bed and I, standing atop, pulled it on. George the Peruvian pumped smoke into the hives ahead of them. On the truck I maneuvered the hives like pieces of a puzzle, shoving them together, pulling them apart. We had nearly finished the bottom layer of the first load and soon they would lift the hives over their heads. The yard was hazy with smoke and confused bees, but they weren’t stinging much. Everyone wore short-sleeves and neither Warren nor Ralph had gloves. It was 7 p.m. and the temperature had just dipped under 100°F.
“A young man like yourself Ralph should be able to do this all day.” Warren said.
“You’ve only got twelve months on me, mate.” Ralph grumbled, tipping the next hive to pick it up. “Watch out, this one’s heavy.”
Unlike most beekeepers, Warren didn’t keep his hives on pallets. Instead each hive had a strap to hold it together so it could be tipped at an angle – important for ease in moving the hives by hand. Though it required hard lifting, this system allowed flexibility in choosing which hives would go to a honey flow. This is important in Australia because some eucalyptus trees do not give good pollen. On these weak hives they would “fly their guts out,” meaning they may make honey, but when the flow ended there would be no young bees and the hive would be as good as dead. Warren would only bring the strongest hives to these flows, and send the weak ones to a different area for recovery. “Palletized” beekeepers have less flexibility because weak and strong beehives will be living on the same pallet. Though it’s possible for them to reshuffle hives before a move, often this chore is passed over at the end of a long day.
At first I was a bit incredulous about hand-loading, but I eventually came to like the work. There was something wonderful about an hour of lifting and strapping down a full load. The hard work releases endorphins into the body, which don't come when operating a Bobcat or a Beeloader.
However the next day can be a different story. After a night of immobilization, when the endorphins have dispersed, the back may complain with its first movements of the day. As we all know, the back of a beekeeper is important.….
The next day, or the next year, I should say. I started ...
Gadgets and Gizmos
by M.E.A. McNeil
Beekeepers are inventors, many of them – surely more than among keepers of much else. To speculate on why this is so, consider that they are people who are content in the company of wild stinging insects that have no inclination toward domestication. To have some say in the situation, beekeepers must anticipate and guide their charges like Montessori kindergarten teachers. To that end, they come up with ingenious ideas, starting with the first person to pack home a chunk of fallen treetrunk filled with bees.
It is often said that the last half of the 19th century was a golden age of beekeeping invention, spurred by the observation of bee space and the creation of the movable frame hive. True, the smoker, centrifuge and queen rearing techniques soon followed in a creative blitz with all manner of contraptions, apparatuses, contrivances and doodads. But that curiosity and passion have not waned. After all, Langstroth was just looking closely, and that is what still happens in the company of bees.
From ant-gooping to queen castling, here are some ideas.
Christine Kurtz of the Sonoma County Beekeepers Association (SCBA) finds that the transparency of her water bottle swarm catcher allows her to see how the cluster is dropping. It is simply a five-gallon plastic water jug, cut off at the bottom and attached to a long telescoping extension pole, which is removable. The opening is large enough to hold a frame of comb sprayed with sugar syrup if she wishes.
A yogurt container glue pot made with a brush stuck through the lid “has been my best tool over several decades” according to Marin and San Francisco beekeeper Robert MacKimmie. He uses it to construct boxes and frames and also paints the outside box corners, sealing the open grains of the exposed finger joints to curtail weathering. He uses a 16 ounce yogurt container to construct smaller numbers and a 32 ounce when he has more to do. A thin 1” chip brush does the job, sets him back $1 and is swapped out twice a year. He works with Titebond II Premium Wood Glue, which sells for under $19 per gallon. “Everything about this is very inexpensive, but it results in excellent hive body durability,” he said.
Corrugated plastic campaign signs are reused by Ettamarie Peterson of SCBA. When elections are over, she gathers signs for several uses. With an X-Acto knife, she sizes them as plastic monitor boards, which she sprays with cooking oil to stick falling mites for counting. She also makes them into sturdy “politician board” nucs, as she calls them – with one successful candidate touting her recycling of his signs. She was told that such a nuc was independently created at the Central Coast Beekeepers in California.
An ant-proof hive stand is Windsor, California, beekeeper Mike Turner’s solution to a chronic problem. He mounts the stand on a base of four ¾ inch carriage bolts, 10-12 inches long on each corner. He coats the bolts with a mixture of 1:1 petroleum jelly and mineral oil. He reapplies it in hot weather, when it lasts about a month, or if it hardens with cold – although he does not find ants to be a winter problem. He makes the slurry thicker in summer and runnier in winter. Vaseline and baby oil work fine, and he uses the same formula to dissolve propolis on his hive tools He also rubs it into his leather gloves to soften them.
Cinnamon and fireplace ash as ant repellents are suggested by Ettamarie Peterson.
A simple robbing screen was devised by Billy Davis, a Master Beekeeper who heads the Sustainable Honeybee Program of Northern Virginia. He folds a piece of 8” hardware cloth into a right angle, creating a 3/4” tunnel. He uses a staple gun to attach it over the hive entrance, extending at least 4” on each side beyond the opening. He uses it, together with an entrance reducer, on all of his hives and finds that it works as well as more complex models. He confines the entrance on full size colonies to 2”. He reports that “The colony learns very quickly to turn left or right to enter or exit the tunnel. This very much discourages robbers.” It can be seen in the blog by Atlanta Master Beekeeper Linda Tillman: www.beekeeperlinda.com
Note that in the photo bees are grouped at the entrance of the newly placed screen, but they soon acclimate to the new way in. Also note the turquoise identifying markers that Tillman placed on the hives for the bees, similar to the markers used by Von Frisch.
A wine cork entrance reducer was fashioned by Linda Tillman who has more ideas that can be seen at the site above. The corks fit snugly and the opening width can be adjusted by adding or removing a few. (The bees will most probably propolize the interstices; note that the Latin pro polis means before, or in front of, the city.)
Tools for Working the Bees
The guitar string hive separator is used by beekeeper Terry Oxford who keeps bees on the roofs of San Francisco restaurants. Small of stature, she had difficulty prying propolyzed boxes apart. She found that a strong guitar string, tied on either end with wood handles, allows her to pull through the connected supers, toward herself from the opposite corner, to loosen them. Her friend Tony Blaiotta made her the tool. See a video of the separator in action at www.urbanbeessf.com.
The quiet box is another innovative contribution by Virginia beekeeper Billy Davis. He finds that placing frames in sunlight during hive inspections is disruptive to the bees, so he places them in a box with an attached vinyl cover cloth. He places the first frame removed from the
by T'Lee Sollenberger
As I type this, spring may be around the corner. Hard to tell, when Monday starts with 30°F, blustery wind, snow flurries, sleet and rain, while Friday ends with 68°F and partly cloud skies. No matter. Beekeeping work must go on if one is to be ready for the real spring buildup and subsequent harvest.
My work bench is clear of the usual debris; disturbed dust motes scatter in the thin sunshine weeping through the window next to my work bench, which I have just lined with a chunk of newsprint. A battered galvanized trash can is stacked on an upturned bucket to reach the perfect height for my newest beekeeping project. My tools lie at the ready—a small recently sharpened hive tool, an awl, nail puller, tack hammer, two sizes of frame nails, a repurposed hoof pick, a wire brush, my favorite wood glue and my homemade frame setter board, (photo 1).
Have you guessed what the new project is?
No, it’s not installing new foundation or making frames; it’s not strictly devoted to repairing frames on the frame setter board, (although I will be doing a fair amount of that anyway).
Still, not sure?
Well, spring is almost here and it is time to do one of the most abhorred tasks beekeepers avoid like side steppin‘ a den of rattlesnakes—plastic frame and sheet foundation clean-up and reconditioning! Ta-da!
I know I sound a bit gleeful over a nasty, messy job, but I actually look forward to offering my bees freshly cleaned and sanitized foundation to start comb pulling during their spring buildup.
So, why put yourself through this ugly bit of beekeeping business every year?
Anyone out there heard of CCD, colony collapse disorder? Bee viruses run amok? Seen a decline in queen fertility? Had a problem with chalk brood, or European Foulbrood, or a host of other bacterium and viruses? You name the bee problem and I guarantee some of it is related to black comb over three years old.
Old inky black combs become ready-made sponges absorbing and storing pesticides, fungicides, miticides, pollutants and other “cides,” yet to be named or discovered. Foragers drag in all kinds of environmental crud just from doing their jobs. Or worse yet, you, the well-intentioned beekeeper may have put a miticide in their hives trying to control some afore-mentioned problem, which only adds to this chemical cocktail within the beehive. The once pristine white wax combs have now turned into a blackened homogeneous toxic wasteland for your newly mated, young queen to lay her eggs into. I know, I’m not paintin’ a pretty picture here.
I suggest that this yearly housekeeping chore will certainly remove one or more factors of honey bee decline in your hives. Bold talk I know. But most research over the years still agrees that by removing old black comb by the third year of bee usage helps control the spread of disease organisms, while reducing the dangerous pesticide, fungicide and miticide overload within the hive.
If this task is performed yearly, you may only be able to cull a portion of your blackest combs—those not in use. Sometimes, black comb will be filled with pollen, honey reserves, or even brand new eggs throughout the season making it difficult to replace unless a concentrated effort on your part is made to shift the frames up, down or out to the furthest edges of the brood box during the season until they are empty. Only then can they be replaced.
Let’s face it, if given a chance, the queen bee loves freshly laundered, large, wax cells to lay her eggs into.
Did I say large?
Now, for a bit of biology. Each time the queen uses and reuses brood comb, despite the cleanup efforts of the house bees to prep the comb for her next batch of eggs, the cell size diminishes. Can’t be helped. Old cocoon layers from many successive years of brood rearing remain to some extent, each decreasing the available cell size for the queen to lay in, which reduces the space available for the larvae to grow in, reducing the size of the baby bees.
If for no other reason, removing old, rock hard, black as Hades comb will give the new larvae room to grow! I want nice fat worker bees. How ‘bout you?
It’s a warmish day inside my garage, but not so much outside. National Public Radio blares in the background informing me on whatever is on their minds for the day. I work steadily. Using my sharp hive tool, I roll the wax sideways off the plastic sheet foundation into my trusty trash can, (photo 2). This wax is so black that even my solar wax melter on a 110°F day can’t find any wax left to render out, so, this black comb is total waste.
Onward—next, I use a ground down and side sharpened hoof pick to clean out the side grooves of entirely plastic frames like Pierco, or EZ Frames, or the top and bottom grooves of wooden frames, if I need to remove and reset the plastic sheet foundation for any reason, (photo 3). I also use an awl to poke out the wax moth cocoons, (photo 4), which are very fond of incubating in wooden frame pin holes.
Finally, any wax still adhering to the foundation gets the wire brush treatment, (photo 5), but at this stage the foundation has not been thoroughly cleaned of any leftover waxy cocoons or has not been sanitized against comb-borne disease spores like chalk brood or European Foulbrood. This step comes later.
While cleaning the wooden frames, I take note of any weak spots; is it wobbly at the top or bottom, side by side? This often indicates loose nails, no glue, or something broken, (I inherit or unknowingly buy a lot of poorly constructed bee boxes and frames. I usually catch up on these renegade frames during my cleanup and reconditioning each year). I repair these kinds of problems by hammering down loosened nails, re-gluing corners, or adding a nail to the side bar to keep the top bar from pulling loose as shown in photo 6 A & B.
Once this phase of cleaning is complete, I take my chore outside. You’ll want a nice warm day for this and a willing helper to man a power washer, (photo 7). Power washers run a couple of hundred bucks, so balance their usefulness against the number of colonies that you manage. If you only have a couple of colonies, a field trip to the self-help car wash, where sometimes even hot water is available to perform the following cleanup techniques will be your best bet.
Dress your helper in a waterproof apron to keep his clothes kind of dry, a face shield to protect his eyes and waterproof footwear, (photo 7). DO NOT FILL THE POWER WASHER WITH SOAP! Any soap residual could kill your bees. Just plain water in the tank will do the trick.
So, let’s get to it!
1. Warm the scraped frames by laying them in the sun on the grass, or anywhere near where you intend to do your wash-up, (photo 8). Keep in mind this is a wet, mucky job. Water flies everywhere! Bits of cocoon wax splatters everything nearby, so, think about where you want that mess to end up even though it will eventually biodegrade.
2. Spray off the bulk of ...
Spring Management Tips and Shortcuts
Spring is the busiest time of the beekeeping year. Anything you can do to improve your work productivity and increase colony efficiency is an absolute necessity. Every experienced beekeeper has an assortment of tricks and shortcuts acquired through years of practice and experience. Unfortunately a large portion of this information never makes it into print form. Consequently, many new beekeepers are left to fend for themselves through the trial and error process. With all of the obstacles facing beekeepers today, the trial and error process is somewhat impractical, and often financially prohibitive. While there is no all inclusive management advice, most operational strategies or tactics are easily adapted to fit the local circumstance. With that thought in mind, here are five suggestions.
Use Nuc Boxes
Nucleus colonies have been a staple of the beekeeping industry for the better part of the last century. Versatile, easy-to-move and manage, nucs offer the beekeeper a means to dramatically improve overall colony management efficiency. Yet, far too many beekeepers regulate nucs to the back burner. They fail to realize the multitude of advantages that nucs have to offer.
For starters, nucs are the ideal cold weather abode. Start your packages or early season splits in a five-frame nuc box. Once it is queenright the new colony will literally explode. The secret is heat retention. Use a solid bottom and keep the entrance reduced as needed. Once the small colony is in need of additional room, add space vertically in the form of a second five-frame box. If there is incoming nectar, don’t hesitate to use foundation in the second box. Nucs are ideal comb production units. Again, the secret is heat control. The narrow abode forces escaping heat upwards which in turn facilitates comb production.
Nucs are also ideal for queen rearing purposes. Whether you’re grafting or using the notching technique, nucs are far easier to set up and manage than standard ten-frame equipment. Queen mating nucs are traditional, although the size and style can vary tremendously. I find it much easier to locate queens on small frames so my mating nucs are all in medium depth equipment. However, I routinely mix medium and deep boxes when I need additional brood and bees for expansion purposes. For example, I’ll add a deep box on top of a medium that has been left to build. Once the deep is full of brood and young adults, I’ll split it off and requeen one or both halves depending on need. The number of options is almost unlimited, and that illustrates the true versatility of using nuc boxes.
Locally the main honey flow generally ends by the tenth of July, occasionally somewhat earlier. While heat retention and rapid buildup are the primary reasons for using nuc boxes in the spring, summer splits are an entirely different matter. In summer nuc boxes are used primarily to prevent robbing and for ease of movement. In most years the threat of robbing requires that mid-season splits be moved away from full sized production colonies. The use of nuc boxes greatly facilitates that move. Take care to provision summer splits with an adequate adult population. Providing just enough adults to keep the brood warm can easily create the potential for robbing. Once started, robbing of small colonies is almost impossible to stop. Keep the entrance reduced accordingly, and again shake in enough adult bees to provide a small field and guard force. Because of the absence of a flow, drawn comb becomes a necessity once the summer split requires larger quarters —unless you’re willing to feed like mad. In that case, add space vertically to facilitate comb production. Otherwise, I generally transfer the five-frame colony into the center of a ten-frame hive body and add drawn comb to the outsides. Ideally, a fair number of those added combs are filled with honey.
Spring arrives late in this territory, so I prefer to overwinter in standard ten-frame boxes. Sometime in mid to late August, well ahead of the fall honey flow, I start to transfer multiple story five-frame colonies into standard equipment. Nucs on deep frames are transferred and winter as single hive body colonies. Nucs on 6 5/8th depth frames are transferred into double-story medium depth boxes. The idea is to allow the transferred colonies time to reorganize their broodnest prior to any fall flow. If Mother Nature doesn’t provide the necessary winter stores, it’s a simple matter to augment with heavy syrup, or to add frames or supers of honey saved specifically for that purpose.
Set up a Queen Bank
If you have ever received a spring queen shipment early or during an extended period of bad weather, I feel your pain. This scenario becomes almost unavoidable once you’ve kept bees for more than a year or two. For years I kept caged queens with attendants in shoe boxes in the linen closet. Watered them twice a day and fretted as the attendants gradually died off. On more than one occasion I’ve opened up colonies during very inclement weather solely to replace dead queen cage attendants. I’ve had similar experiences with battery boxes, trying to keep everything together until the queens could be put into the receiving colonies. I don’t remember exactly which straw broke the camel’s back, but I finally decided things had to change.
So, I decided to experiment by making up some queen banks. I have some homemade four-frame nuc boxes fitted with deep rimmed inner covers and telescoping outer covers. It was a simple matter to make up holding frames for each of the various style queen cages. The queen banks were made up using ...
Dealing With Dead-Outs
A beehive that withstands the cold winter months has tremendous potential. In spring, over-wintered hives can be split, re-queened or managed to produce significant quantities of honey. Establishing the conditions that enable a hive to survive the winter and flourish in spring is one of the many gratifying aspects of beekeeping. So it serves to reason that finding “dead-out” hives can be a bitter discouragement. Dead-outs are just that; hives in which the entire bee colony has died. Losing a hive is frustrating and expensive. However, to an observant beekeeper, a dead-out hive can be as educational as a growing hive in spring. Here we will identify some common causes of dead-out hives and explain how to decipher the clues they leave behind. While dealing with dead-outs could be considered the “other side” of beekeeping, understanding their causes and altering our practices accordingly might help us limit their frequency in the future.
How can a beekeeper tell if a hive is dead when frigid temperatures keep bees from flying? First, check the snow or ground cover near the entrance to the hive. Fresh dead bees on the ground can be a sign that the hive is still alive. Listen carefully at the hive entrance. Some beekeepers use a stethoscope placed against the outside of the hive. If the hive lacks the reassuring hum of live bees, put on a veil and pop the lid. Watch for live bees and listen with your head close to the top bars of the frames. A sudden appearance of live bees, an urgent buzzing or a whiff of alarm pheromone may indicate that the hive is alive and well, and a simple removal of dead bees from the entrance so live bees can enter and exit is all that is needed. Now is a great time to check for honey stores while the hive is open, adding reserve honey frames or other emergency feed as needed.
What if all the bees in the hive are dead? Passionate beekeepers have been known to grieve for a moment, considering all the time, energy and money invested into that mass of dead insects. Finding the queen curled up and dead is a major bummer. But, before planning a miniature state funeral for the deceased royalty—or pondering other hobbies to pursue—resolve not to be overly discouraged by a dead-out. Instead of dwelling on the loss, shift the focus to any hives that survived the winter and try to identify differences between the healthy hives and the dead-out hive. As disappointing as a dead-out hive can be, there is much to learn from one.
Conduct a post-mortem analysis of your dead-out hive. First, note the location of the main cluster of dead bees. Is it high or low in the hive? Check the weight of each box. Do some boxes contain honey stores? If there is a large cluster of bees and plenty of honey in the hive, it may indicate that the bees simply starved within inches of stored honey, unable to move due to cold or unwilling to separate themselves from the frames of brood for which they were caring. This scenario is highly frustrating for the conscientious beekeeper who manages the bees effectively throughout the year, but still loses the entire colony over the winter. Do not stop there. Keep looking.
Pay close attention to the bottom board. Are there signs of mice? Look for feces or chewed nesting material. Examine the bottom board mess for varroa mites. If you see thousands of them, you have likely found the cause of the bees’ demise or at least the catalyst for the development of a fatal
Sort through the dead bees carefully with eyes peeled for small hive beetles and wax moth larvae. A healthy, full sized hive can typically handle a mild infestation of hive beetles, but too many beetles and their larvae can decimate a smaller hive. Look for wax moth larvae or their feces (little black specks) and for their webbings on the comb. If wax moth larvae or small hive beetles have overtaken a hive, it is usually because something else weakened the bee population allowing the beetles, moths and their larvae to take ownership.
Do the bees have deformed bodies? Varroa mites can cause deformities. Do their wings show signs of Deformed Wing Virus? Are there K-winged bees—aptly named because their wings are shaped like the letter “K”? This could indicate a tracheal mite infestation.
Keep an eye out for the queen among the dead bees. Is she the marked original or has she been replaced? If she is a new one, is she ...
Chemical Synergies: When 1 + 1 Does Not Equal 2
The agricultural environment is a source of chemical exposure for bees, with pesticides, their degradation products, and other ingredients in pesticide products (adjuvants, solvents, and other chemicals added to formulated products) dominating the scene. Because multiple pesticide products are applied to a crop, honey bees foraging on or near the crop will typically bring multiple chemicals back to the hive in pollen, nectar and/or water. In-hive miticides are also part of the picture. Indeed, most analyses of hive materials (pollen, wax, bees, honey) taken from beehives in agricultural areas show that multiple agricultural and miticidal chemicals are present.1, 2, 3
As we think about the potential effects of these chemicals on bee health, it becomes clear that we need to know not only how the individual chemicals affect bees, but also whether the mixture alters the toxicity of individual components. There are three possibilities:
- Additive: Toxicity is simply the sum of the toxicity across the individual components;
- Antagonistic: The mixture is less toxic than the sum of its components would suggest; and
- Synergistic: The mixture is more toxic than the sum of its components would indicate.
In this Curious Beekeeper article, we’ll explore the occurrence of synergistic effects, where 1 + 1 is greater than 2.
It might sound impossible, but there is a firm basis in science for the synergistic effects observed for mixtures of chemicals. It all has to do with how insects (and humans) detoxify chemicals. An analogy is illustrative here.
You’ve seen the cartoon--a bad guy walks into the room and starts to make trouble. But not to fear! The big bouncer guy by the door walks over and picks him up by the scruff of the neck and tosses him bodily out the door. The bad guy gets a black eye and bruises in the process and heads off into the distance. But if the bouncer is on vacation, the bad guy can do whatever he pleases without consequences.
This scenario has much in common with the system used by both humans and insects to detoxify chemicals. In this case, the bad guy is a toxic chemical and the bouncer is a group of enzymes that react with the toxic substances. The chemicals are transformed in the process of interaction with the enzymes, which reduces chemical toxicity and facilitates excretion of the toxic substance. But if the enzyme system is disabled by a synergist, it’s as if the bouncer is on vacation. The toxic chemical is not degraded or excreted, and toxic effects are observed at a much lower dose than without the synergizing chemical.
How Detoxification Works
The most common family of enzymes responsible for detoxifying foreign chemicals in biological systems is the cytochrome P450 group (CYP).4 There are other enzymes involved, but because the CYP group is the primary system for detoxification in insects, we’ll focus on it here.
A set of genes codes for the CYP proteins, and different species and even different individuals have a different mix of CYP variants, with marked variability in the ability to detoxify chemicals. This genetic basis of detoxification accounts for much of the variability in the sensitivity of both humans and insects to chemical substances. It also explains why some people can drink a cup of coffee at midnight and go right to sleep while others have to cut caffeine intake early in the day if they hope to get a wink of sleep.
In insects, CYP enzymes have been studied extensively for their role in the development of resistance to insecticides.5, 6 Insects with CYP enzymes that rapidly degrade an insecticide are resistant to its effects, survive the insecticide treatment, and live to reproduce and pass these resistant genes on to their offspring. In the context of beekeeping, fluvalinate-resistant Varroa mites have genes that produce CYP that is very efficient at detoxifying fluvalinate, so it has little effect on the mites.
Exposure to a chemical may have one of several possible effects on the CYP system. The primary ones are:
- Induction and activation: CYP enzyme activity is enhanced in the presence of the chemical, and the result is a substance that is more toxic than the starting chemical. An example here is the transformation of an organophosphorus insecticide like chlorpyrifos (Dursban®) to its much more toxic oxon form that is then further metabolized and excreted.
- Induction and deactivation: CYP enzyme activity is enhanced in the presence of the chemical and the result is a species that is less toxic than the starting chemical. The adaptation of insects to eating toxic plants is based in their ability to degrade toxic substances in the plant to benign ones.
- Inhibition: CYP enzyme activity is suppressed, allowing toxic chemicals to persist in the ...
Western Apicultural Society (WAS) Meets in Missoula, Montana
Part 1: 2nd International Workshop on Hive and Bee Monitoring
The 37th edition of the Western Apicultural Society of North America (WAS) met at the University of Montana, September 18-20, 2014. With the current President, Dr. Jerry Bromenshenk, at the helm I attended knowing that this would, as the organizers promised, “not be your grandfather’s bee conference.” It did not disappoint. “The Future...brought to you by WAS (and some other good people.)” followed on the heels of Dr. Bromenshenk’s 2nd International Workshop on Hive and Bee Monitoring.
For those not informed about Dr. Bromenshenk, now formally retired as a faculty member at the University of Montana, his employment history is worth examining. He is arguably the only faculty member in the bee research arena at a major university to have supported himself on what is called euphemistically, “soft money.” In short, he has had to earn his living by writing grants, rather than the more usual way faculty members are paid, via a taxpayer-supported salary. In order to do this he has explored some unconventional funding sources, including the Department of Energy, the Defense Department via the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)1, the US Army USA-CEHR, and the US Army NVESD laboratories. Research funded by these agencies resulted in patented technologies and methods including Smart Hives (electronic hives), laser (lidar) mappingof honey bee distributions, acoustic diagnostics for colony health and chemical detection, and training of honey bees to find land mines. Many of these were on display at the workshop.
Dr. Bromenshenk’s résumé also includes pioneering study using honey bees as environmental sentinels (monitors) via citizen-based science projects and establishing honey bee based protocols of ecological assessments for use by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Finally, he is a major player in Bee Alert Technology2, which is attempting to integrate new technologies into the craft of managing honey bees.
The workshop on hive monitoring brought together a group of highly trained folks interested in finding the keys to looking at honey bee behavior and colony management without physically manipulating the colony. Physical inspection often inserts error into the observations. It featured the activities of a number of different entities, many using a traditional technology, the scale hive, in innovative ways.
Leading off was Jerry Hayes, ex-bee inspector in Florida and now Monsanto Corporation’s Honey Bee Health Lead at the corporation’s newly-formed BioDirect Business Unit. He discussed how scale hives are used in the company’s research on honey bee health in a number of areas. This was followed by Alwyn Smith of Paladin Engineering, also describing using scale hives (so-called “smart hives”) in relation to research by Bayer Corporation’s newly-formed Bee Care Center in North Carolina’s Research Triangle.3
Mr. Smith would be the first of several at the workshop to mention the obvious to attendees: “honey bees are not cows!” It’s relatively easy to do research on cattle, which can be corralled and closely observed throughout their life. Not so for honey bees that forage up to a mile radius from their colony with the majority of their activities hidden from view inside a wooden box.
The list of things that have to be looked at, according to Mr. Smith, include not only what he called “low hanging fruit” (weight, temperature, humidity), but also specialized activity, much more difficult to analyze. These include specific noises (acoustics), thermal outputs of both adults and brood, individual bee trips in and out of the colony (bee counting), and subtle effects of pheromones. Creative measurements of these can answer many of the perennial questions asked by beekeepers over the years according to Mr. Smith: Is the queen alive or dead? Where is the queen? When is the nectar flow? Where do workers go? What do they do? How healthy is a colony in general? Based on what parameters?
From my perspective, a star of the show at the workshop had to be the current monitoring efforts of an outfit calling itself “Arnia.” Arnia is the Italian word for beehive. This company was formed by Dr. Huw Evans and his wife with specific objectives as noted on the web site.4
The Arnia system sports a delightful user interface and marks the first commercially available, complete system to be marketed at relatively low cost to small-scale and backyard beekeepers. It is a complete system with a basic set of sensors (e.g., hive weight, temperature, relative humidity, bee sound) and cellular communications. It seeks to help answer numerous questions beekeepers might have. How many beekeepers, for example, would like to receive a text message notifying them that their supers are full, or a colony has gone queenless, needs winter feed, was knocked down or blown over, perhaps stolen?
Arnia’s monitoring efforts began by looking at acoustics for swarm control, but now include scale hives5, as well as information on brood nest temperature, and humidity. Arnia distinguishes itself over simpler hive-scale systems by collecting a huge amount of data remotely, in real time on a routine basis. This information reveals the “wisdom of the crowd,”6 which appears to mirror how humans, honey bees, and many other biological phenomena self-govern. The activity also fits with the idea of collecting what is being called “big data.”7
Arnia appeared to be the “gold standard” at the moment, as featured at the Missoula workshop, having the most advanced, commercially-available, single-hive system on display. However, others are currently in the pipeline and capacity is rapidly building. Initiatives not prominently featured at the event include those by commercial beekeeping supply outlets like Swienty and Mann Lake Supply, as well as Bee Alert Technology. The latter is targeting large-scale applications for beekeepers in the U.S.
An example of the use of the Arnia system was provided by Robert McCreery of the Dromore Beekeepers Association in Northern Ireland.8 This activity (Journeyman Hive Monitoring) is considered a cornerstone of “Strategy for the Sustainabiity of the Honey Bee,” a program of Ireland’s Department of Agriculture and Rural Development9, which was initiated in 2011.10
Other activities mentioned by Mr. McCreery include a distributed pollinator study, categorizing pollen diversity and analyzing flowering times (phenology). Of utmost importance is its use in schools and educational institutions, as well as in the field of what is being called “citizen science,”11 where beekeepers themselves become an integral part of a research team.
Citizen Science Project
Citizen science was pioneered by Dr. Bromenshenk in his early studies using bees as environmental monitors of air quality in the Pacific Northwest. Dr. Wayne Esaias, recently retired from NASA’s Goddard Space Center discussed the origins of his citizen science project, which began in 2006, when he farmed out some hive scales to beekeepers around the U.S. Now called HoneyBeeNet12, this is reaching a network of beekeepers, that continues to actively gather data. The genesis of this initiative is spelled out in a NASA blog post13:
“Esaias, who works at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, has been studying this cycle of beehive yo dieting in the U.S., as he explains in the video above. By combining hive weight changes with space satellite data that reveal vegetation change on the ground, along with other data that go back to the 1920s, he has found that the timing of spring nectar flows has undergone extraordinary change. ‘Each year, the nectar flow comes about a half-day earlier on average,’ says Esaias. ‘In total, since the 1970s, it has moved forward by about month in Maryland.’ In an interesting demonstration of citizen science, Esaias has set up a network of amateur beekeepers —HoneyBeeNet— who use industrial-sized scales to weigh their hives each day.”
Since its beginnings, Dr. Esaias reported at the workshop, the HoneyBeeNet project has made great progress in analyzing what’s going on outside the hive. Important areas of interest include indirect climate impacts on plants providing nectar. He emphasized that “honey bee nectar flow” is what is being looked at, and not necessarily correlated with what many beekeepers call the “honey flow.”
Warming of the climate continues to be the focus of Dr. Esaias’ efforts, which have delivered some intriguing conclusions. The role of “invasive” species is now being looked at from different perspectives. Could these plants be a godsend if native species can’t survive in the region they are originally adapted to? A comparison of trees as major nectar plants in the northeast vs plants in other areas brings into focus regional differences in bee forage that must be taken into consideration when making honey bee management decisions.
Unfortunately, with the retirement of Dr. Esaias, the future of HoneyBeeNet is in doubt. It appears that at least some of this effort will be taken up by the University of Maryland’s sentinel hive project,14 which is using crowd funding. Potential citizen scientists are being asked to raise money to fund a pilot program of 10 Sentinel Hives with pollen and disease monitoring. Money raised will fund extra Sentinel Hives. This initiative is due to end in October, 2014, but if successful should continue the program.15
Another hive monitoring approach mentioned at the workshop that is currently in use is Hive Tracks. According to its web site,16 “Hive Tracks is a powerful computer application accessed through any Internet Browser. It can be used from a laptop, desktop, iPad, iPhone or other type of smart phone with Internet access.” The approach is similar to that of HoneyBeeNet in that bee and hive data is periodically collected in the bee yard and can be transferred via the Internet. Both Hive Tracks and HoneyBeeNet differ from Arnia in a crucial way; neither is real time, remote monitoring, relying instead on a beekeeper physically visiting the bee yard and collecting data from individual colonies.
The relative costs of the approaches discussed above are quite ...
Setting Up a Front Yard Stand
Did you ever think of setting up a front yard stand to sell honey? It hardly costs anything. It’s convenient. There’s no gas expense. It is great advertising. It could be a great strategy for selling quite a bit of honey. It will establish you as a beekeeper in the community. But before you go out there and build a stand, here are some things to consider.
Are you on a well-travelled but not over-travelled street? It doesn’t have to be Main Street, but probably a side street with minimal traffic wouldn’t do. Yes, you will get a few neighbors to buy product, but that won’t be enough volume to make it worthwhile. A street that affords a steady traffic flow is best. Yet, the roadway isn’t so traffic-heavy that stopping will be an obstacle. Probably, this will be a two-lane roadway in a rural or suburban community.
Do you have a space for cars to pull off? You don’t want to be a safety hazard, so you must have or create a path where a car can pull off alongside the road and park. It doesn’t have to be asphalted, but there should be clear demarcation where cars can park. If you have a berm at the edge of your property, then you will need to do some excavating. Making buyers pull into the driveway and then walk back to the honey stand will not satisfy your clientele. After all, the stand is all about convenience.
Do you have an adequate supply of honey? According to Richard Lomba, of Pembroke, MA, who has a stand out front, the cardinal rule is you must have honey always available. He says, “There has to be product there—always. When someone stops at a stand and finds the cupboards empty, you made an angry customer. The person will probably never come back.” Customers used to stopping at a spot to pick up their honey want it to be there. To maintain a steady supply, Lomba maintains 18 hives. He says, “Someone who has only three or four hives probably won’t be able to keep it going. So there are some limits as to who should be doing this.”
On the other hand, two beekeepers could participate in the honey stand to insure a steady supply. And with a few calls, one often can get fellow area beekeepers to put in some honey. Of course, they would receive full compensation.
Are you around your premises most days? You don’t have to be there all day, because, after all, it’s self-service. But going away periodically for a week or two without coverage is hard to do. It’s good to be there on a daily basis to check stock, to take in daily revenue, to move stock in or out during inclement weather, and to check on the stand generally. Of course, you could recruit a neighbor to be your store clerk, for liquid compensation.
Are you willing to take an occasional hit? The self-serve idea is based on the honor system, and most people are honorable. But, every so often, someone steals a bottle without paying, or even worse, takes the can of money. Richard Lomba says, “It happens once in a blue moon. Yes, it’s aggravating, but since it happens so rarely, I live with the occasional theft.” What you must do, when the theft occurs is consider that the vast majority (99%) of customers are honorable and above-board. That helps.
How will you deal with inclement weather? As long as the honey bottles are tight, rain will ...
Amitraz: Red Flags or Red Herrings?
A number of findings regarding the miticide amitraz (as well as the neonicotinoid insecticides) have come to my attention in recent months. The question is, are they red flags, or red herrings?
A POTENTIAL BOMBSHELLl
A Red Flag?
A couple of weeks ago a beekeeper emailed me a blog with explosive implications. It was written by Penn State entomologist Dr. David Biddinger for tree fruit growers, but may help us to connect the dots between beekeeper complaints of problems with agricultural insecticides (neonicotinoids specifically), beekeeper-applied amitraz, and colony and queen losses. He wrote:
The second special situation where spraying fungicides during bloom can cause problems is where the honey bee keepers are using the insecticide/miticide amitraz for control of varroa mites in the hive. Most tree fruit growers will remember amitraz as Mitac which was used heavily for pear psylla control in the past. This product was routinely used for synergizing organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides in crops like cotton where key pests had developed resistance, because it shut down the enzymes insects used to detoxify pesticides. This raises concerns about amitraz being used to treat mites in honey bee hives. While it may be effective in controlling varroa mites now that they have quickly developed resistance to the organophosphate coumaphos and the pyrethroid fluvalinate, adding this synergist to a hive basically shuts off a bee’s immune system to pretty much any pesticide with which it later comes into contact.
Oh…my…gosh! Go ahead and read it again! Have beekeepers inadvertently been synergizing (multiplying) the negative effects of miticide residues and agricultural chemicals in hives by their applications of amitraz?
Note: This article is a condensed version of a much more detailed article available at my website.
IN DEFENSE OF AMITRAZ
Or a Red Herring?
Let me assure you, despite its faults, I am not writing this article to trash amitraz; indeed, I encouraged the manufacturer of Apivar® to bring that excellent product to market. In defense of amitraz, let me make perfectly clear that I know of a great many beekeepers who would likely not be in business today were it not for amitraz. And many of them have not suffered from exaggerated colony loss; indeed, some of them are major almond pollinators, as well as being suppliers of queens and packages to the rest of the industry. Based upon that on-the-ground evidence, one might be tempted to let amitraz off the hook, but upon closer look, the story grows more complex.
AMITRAZ AND VARROA
Amitraz has a long history of successful use as a varroacide. It was yet another Silver Bullet—a treatment or two a year kept mites under control, and the active ingredient didn’t show up in honey. Those in some European countries have used Taktic for decades, and a number of U.S. beekeepers have (illegally) applied it to their colonies since the 1990’s. But things are about to change in the U.S….
A CHANGE THAT WORKS
For those who haven’t heard, the registration of Taktic in the U.S. has been voluntarily withdrawn by the registrant (Fig. 1).
The loss of Taktic has the potential to seriously shake up the commercial bee industry. Any number of beekeepers have told me that they can’t imagine how they could stay in business without it. That statement has credibility when you consider that when Taktic was temporarily unavailable a couple of summers ago, that a number of beekeepers lacking a “Plan B” simply let their colonies go without treatment, often with disastrous results.
Practical consideration: on the other hand, the illegal use of Taktic has given those same beekeepers an unfair competitive advantage over those of us who stick with the more expensive registered treatments, yet must still compete with the scofflaws in the open market for pollination services and honey sales.
However, there is now an alternative and legal way to apply amitraz—in the form of Apivar® strips. Beekeepers used to fast-acting treatments with Taktic may need to adjust their mite management schedules due to the slower knock down of mites by Apivar. Apivar is designed to be an extended-release treatment that paralyzes the mites to the extent that they are unable to reproduce; the strips are designed for a full 42-56-day treatment. An additional benefit to the strips is that one avoids introducing the additional bee-toxic adjuvants present in the formulation of Taktic—Frazier found that “the miticide formulation Taktic was four times more orally toxic to adult honey bees than the respective active ingredient amitraz.”
Practical note: if you are used to applying Taktic in fall for a quick knock out of mites prior to the formation of the winter cluster, you may be disappointed by the slower results from Apivar. Research from Saskatchewan suggests that in areas in which winter comes on quickly, spring treatment may be the better option.
People put their trust in our governmental regulatory agencies to protect us from harmful foods, medicines, and pesticides. Few take the time to deeply investigate the potential down sides to exuberantly-advertised off-the-shelf medicines or treatments. But the truth is, that we beekeepers should practice due diligence by doing our homework about the things that we put into our hives.
The last thing that I wish to do is to be alarmist, but the rest of this article will deal with possible side effects from amitraz.
PREVALENCE OF AMITRAZ RESIDUES IN HIVES
One thing that we’ve learned in recent years is about the “legacy effect” of miticide residues in our combs. One reason that beekeepers favor amitraz is that it is nearly insoluble in honey, and the small amount that does dissolve quickly breaks down, mainly into DMPF, which remains stable in honey for at least 45 days. Amitraz is far more soluble in beeswax, where it completely degrades within a day, also mainly into DMPF, which remains stable for a considerable period of time.
A Red Flag?
Although amitraz is considered to be “relatively non-toxic to bees,” chronic exposure of bees to its degradation product in the combs and honey allows for the distinct possibility of it exerting sublethal or behavioral effects upon the bees, or the possibility of synergizing the sublethal effects of other contaminants. So how prevalent is amitraz contamination of combs?
By the year 2003, commercial hives were already so contaminated by amitraz, that there was concern about varroa having developed resistance. Later in the decade, Mullin (2010) detected DMPF in fully 60% of beeswax samples and 31% of beebread samples. Even more recently, DMPF was the third most common pesticide residue in the 451 samples of beebread analyzed by the USDA National Survey from 2010 through January 2014 --present in 23% of samples, led only by the other miticides fluvalinate and coumaphos. By comparison, the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and thiacloprid were found in only 2.9%, 2.4%, 2.2%, and 0.7% of samples, respectively.
Practical application: although one’s honey may test free of amitraz, in fact it is the DMPF that exerts its toxic action upon honey bees. Testing shows that DMPF is an extremely common contaminant of commercial combs.
Or a Red Herring?
So let’s do some math! Using the formula for the Daily Consumption Hazard that I proposed in a previous article, and using the published LD50 values for amitraz, I calculate that a bee consuming even the most highly contaminated pollen would only get a tiny fraction of the lethal dose. On the other hand, the contact dose that bees might get from rubbing against highly-contaminated comb might approach the range of lethality.
However, that doesn’t necessarily mean ...
Choosing the Right Location for Your Apiary
An apiary is an assembly of one or more bee hives at a single location. I once believed that you could establish apiaries anywhere and that the bees would thrive and make honey by the bucket. Boy, was I wrong. I grew up in central Georgia and had only one apiary site during my early years. My grandfather was a dairy farmer and he was gracious enough to allow me to keep my bees on his farm. The site was great. I enjoyed many years of keeping bees and making honey. The apiary location was good for the bees, but it significantly skewed my view of beekeeping. When I began to teach about bees and beekeeping, I would scoff at people who would tell me that their bees were not making honey at the apiary site they chose. I always believed that they had this problem because they did not know how to keep bees. After all, bees make honey everywhere.
Then, I moved to High Springs, Florida. I was told, before moving to the area, that it was a difficult place to keep bees. Local beekeepers told me that bees survive just fine in the area, but that they do not make honey. Of course, since I knew everything, I believed the people just did not know what they were doing. I would keep bees in High Springs my way, and sit back and watch the honey come in by the gallon.
I failed to make any honey the first year I kept bees in High Springs. Surely, that was an anomaly, an unlucky twist of fate. Of course, it happened again the second year. I began to question my tactics. By the third year, I was convinced that one could not make palatable, surplus honey in the city I now call home. I had learned an important lesson. Not all apiary sites are created equal.
This article is about choosing the right apiary site to locate your bees. The characteristics beekeepers look for in apiaries vary by how they intend to use the apiary. For example, staging yards (apiaries where colonies are put temporarily for purposes other than pollinating crops and/or making honey) can just be large fields and relatively void of good forage for the bees. On the other hand, you have to put bees close to nectar-rich plants if you want to make honey. Regardless, all “good” apiary sites share common characteristics one must value in order to maximize colony production and beekeeper enjoyment of the craft. Just like in real estate, all that matters when choosing apiary sites is location, location, location.
Before discussing some “apiary essentials,” I want to note that I realize that beekeepers, especially hobbyist beekeepers, often have little choice when picking a good apiary location. Sometimes, your only option is your only option. There is nowhere else to go. However, there are good pointers to remember even when your options are limited.
20 Characteristics of a Good Apiary Location
1) There must be copious, quality pollen and nectar sources nearby (Figure 1). Honey bees thrive when floral resources abound. However, a plant does not necessarily produce quality nectar and/or pollen just because it blooms. Have you ever had tulip honey? Even if a given plant produces a lot of nectar, there must be enough of the plants around in order for the bees to make honey. I often get the comment that “I have a citrus tree in my yard and I do not get any citrus honey”: of course not. Bees have to forage from numerous citrus trees in order to make citrus honey. The same is true of whatever nectar source your bees are pursuing.
One also should be careful to believe the distance rule of foraging behavior. We have all read in books that bees will fly two to five miles from the nest in search of nectar and pollen. Though this is true, do not expect a crop of sourwood honey if there are five acres of sourwood four miles from your apiary. The best apiary sites are those located as close as possible to the quality forage resources.
Furthermore, a potential apiary site may yield honey, but it may not be palatable. For example, my bees make a super of wild cherry in February and one of Spanish needle in September. Neither honey is palatable to most humans. There is nothing else in my area the rest of the year except pine and oak trees (Figure 2). Neither are known to yield nectar that bees can use to make honey. My bees are able to sustain themselves on the cherry and Spanish needle honey, but they do not produce a marketable crop for me.
My advice here is simple: check with other beekeepers in your area to determine if the area has a history of providing major nectar flows and quality pollen. I find beekeeper advice quite valuable in these instances. At the end of the day, however, there is no substitute for giving the area a try. You really will not know if nectar and pollen resources abound if you do not place colonies there for some years. My rule of thumb is that I will give an area three years with five to ten hives before I consider it a resource desert.
2) There should be a source of clean water near the colonies. Bees need water to survive. They are going to forage for water at the nearest quality source, which always seems to be exactly where you do not want them to forage. Consequently, a convenient source of water should be available to the bees at all times during the year so that the bees will not congregate at swimming pools, pet watering bowls (Figure 3), or other watering sources where they may contact humans, birds, or domestic pets. Some sources of water that beekeepers can provide include: (1) a tub of water with wood floats to prevent the bees from drowning, (2) a faucet in the apiary that is left to drip steadily, or (3) filling Boardman entrance feeders (quart jars with holes in the lids) with water and placing them in the colony entrance (Figure 4). If using tubs of water, the water should be changed periodically to avoid stagnation and mosquito breeding.
3) Apiaries should be established away from where people or animals frequent. Most people are scared of bees. Some are allergic to bees. Nothing will kill your beekeeping hobby quicker than neighbors who are upset at you for allowing your bees to drink water from their pool. Most beekeepers adopt the “out of sight, out of mind” policy with locating their hives at a suitable apiary site. For practical reasons, and to promote public safety and reduce beekeeping liability, one should not site apiaries in proximity to tethered or confined animals, students, the elderly, general public, drivers on public roadways, or visitors where animal/bee and people/bee interactions may have a higher likelihood of occurring.
4) Apiaries should not be visible to vandals. There are two reasons to “hide” apiaries from others. The first we addressed in point 3 when we noted that bees can be a public safety issue in some circumstances. The second reason is that bee colonies can be the target of vandals. Colonies and colony equipment are stolen regularly. It is a good idea to keep your colonies out of site.
5) Apiaries must be easily accessible. I have traveled all around the world and seen people keep bees in the hardest possible places to access. I have seen colonies on roofs, in narrow mountain passes, in the thickest imaginable bushes, etc. I take the completely opposite approach. Beekeepers should be able to get to their bees easily. The access road should be navigable and not be prone to flooding. Apiaries should not be located in bushes or on the edge of steep grades. Of course, one should not make it easy for others to find and access your apiary. Yet, you should be able to access your bees when needed. I feel that you should be able to drive a truck and trailer to your bees and have enough room to turn the vehicle around easily.
6) It is a good idea to have a written agreement when locating apiaries on other peoples’ property. Beekeepers often need to locate apiaries on property owned by others. Commercial beekeepers do this all the time. Many hobby beekeepers I know, especially those living in subdivisions, also have to ...
Beekeeping and Its Impact on World War II
Seventy years ago this past June 6, the world watched as Allied Forces invaded the beaches of Normandy, France to liberate the areas of Europe overrun by the Axis powers of Germany and Italy. The commemoration this year opened our eyes to the part that beekeepers and honey bees played in winning that war!
“Beekeepers?” you might ask. “What did bees and beekeepers have to do with the war?”
“Actually, quite a lot.” is the answer.
Since the Japanese occupied some of the countries where the United States had been purchasing part of their sugar supply, it was not available in abundance. Thus, honey was in great demand. Sugar was rationed and honey was a perfect substitute for a sweetener. It was also difficult to transport sugar to the United States across seas occupied by opposing forces.
The sugar rationing made it difficult for beekeepers who were often in need of additional sugar for supplemental feeding. According to the Illinois State Beekeepers’ Association bulletin of March-April, 1943, the North Central States Entomologists resolved (at their conference in March of 1943) that an additional fifteen pounds of sugar be allowed to beekeepers for feeding in addition to the fifteen pounds already available per hive. Carl E. Killion, secretary-treasurer of the North Central States Apiarists, submitted this resolution to the War Production Board and to the Food Production and Distribution Administration. Why was supplemental feeding needed? The honey crop either nearly or completely failed in the summer of 1942 in the north central states. The need to save and build up colonies to serve as pollinators and as producers of honey and beeswax was paramount.
The Department of Agriculture in Washington D.C. also placed honey under the commodity loan program to increase production since the honey industry was deemed ‘essential’ in wartime. In 1942, the industry was requested to make a 20% increase in production since both honey and beeswax were urgently needed. It was stated, “The individual beekeeper, debating the high wages of industry or the duty of service in the armed forces against the project of expanding his apiaries, must give thought to the future of the industry, accepting the hazards of weather and consequent crop failure, the shortage of bee range, the incidence of bee disease, and the menace of bees to the use of poisonous insecticides.”
Need For More Pollination
It was also necessary to increase all legume seeds for additional production of dairy and beef cattle forage. Thus, bees were needed to pollinate the alsike clover. In the early 1940s, yellow and white sweet clover were used to add nitrogen to the soil when corn was planted every couple of years. The legumes in the roots provided that nitrogen fixation and the flowers were wonderful forage for the bees. As a result, our armed forces were well fed. Today that same yellow and white sweet clover is deemed a ‘nuisance.’
Beekeepers Enlist or Get Drafted
Gene Killion was keeping 400 hives back in 1942, but enlisted in the Air Force. He was sent to Barrackpoor, India during the war where he flew the Aluminum Trail over the Hump into China from India. When asked if he had any experience with beekeeping in India, his reply was that he saw no Apis dorsata - the giant honey bee most common in India - in the two years he was there. Yet, he was able to provide much information about beekeeping back in the states during that time. His father, Carl E. Killion, was an advocate for the beekeeping industry during the war. He went to Washington D.C. with the Director of Agriculture to get that extra needed sugar for the beekeepers to feed their bees. He even wrote to D.C. to get two commercial beekeeper brothers from Illinois deferred. They were needed on the home front to produce the honey and pollinate the crops. They surely were not the only ones who were needed to keep agriculture functioning at home to feed both the armed services and the families ‘back home.’
The Dire Need For Wax
The War Production Board also listed over 350 uses for beeswax in wartime military operations and industries. Officials in Washington were concerned about whether there would be sufficient beeswax to supply the Army, Navy, and Air Force. The real ‘stock pile’ of beeswax was in the hands of the beekeepers in the United States and it was the government’s intent to enlist the aid of the beekeepers in collecting and supplying the needed wax. The goal, however, was not to devastate the hive, but to ...
A Comparative Test of the Pollen Subs
Part 1 - Experimental Design and Execution
The growth and health of honey bee colonies is primarily dependent upon the availability of high-quality pollen. Pollen and its fermented form, beebread, is the colony’s primary source of protein, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and sterols.
When there is a dearth of quality pollen, colonies suffer. Broodrearing comes to a halt and the nurses may cannibalize eggs and larvae. Colonies stop growing or go downhill. Protein-starved colonies are unable to hold their own against parasites and pathogens; diseases set in. Inadequate protein nutrition in late summer and fall leads to poor wintering and colonies unable to make grade for almonds.
To mitigate the above problems during times of pollen dearth, beekeepers have long fed protein supplements (commonly called “pollen subs,” although none to date are truly complete substitutes for quality natural pollen). In recent years, successful beekeepers are spending more on pollen subs than ever before (I could not run a successful operation in my area without them). Due to this demand, a number of (ostensibly) improved pollen supplement formulas have recently come onto the market, but the formal testing of such has been limited (and often involved those with a proprietary interest). So I decided to perform a Consumer Reports® type of test to find out how the various products compare.
It occurs to me that the reader may be interested in the sorts of actual details and problems encountered in the design and execution of field trials. So instead of presenting this as a typical dry scientific paper, I’m writing this article as an expanded version of my log book in order to show what sort of thought processes go into a trial, how things often don’t go as planned, how exciting seeing positive results can be, and the decisions that the researcher must make in presenting and interpreting the data. I’m then going to follow this article with additional recent studies that I’ve done related to bee nutrition (as I write this, I’ve already begun a follow up trial).
2013/14 Pollen Supplement Trial
Principal Investigator: Randy Oliver, assisted by Eric and Ian Oliver
Funding sources: Independently funded by beekeeper donations to ScientificBeekeeping.com. Special thanks to almond pollinators contracting with Joe Traynor of Scientific Ag Company, and beekeepers Jeff Becker and Ray Olivarez, Jr.
- To determine whether colonies can be built up for almonds in late summer and over the California winter on artificial diet (sugar and pollen sub) without substantial natural forage available; that is, can today’s formulations substitute for natural pollen?
- To rank the commercially-available pollen supplements by their ability to promote colony growth.
- To determine the overall cost of building 5-frame nucs on foundation to almond pollination strength.
- To compare the attractiveness and consumption rates of the various pollen supplement formulas.
- To determine the cost effectiveness of the various subs at growing colony populations.
Experimental Design and Considerations:
I designed this experiment as an “acid test” of pollen subs by forcing colonies to build up their populations during a time when natural sources of pollen are inadequate. Based upon my 35 years’ experience in the Sierra Foothills, that condition typically occurs from mid August through December, during which time colonies not given protein supplement go decidedly downhill.
Then I had to consider which size and strength of colonies to use for the trial. Full-size doubles, having already reached maximum strength, would be poor indicators of the nutritional utility of the pollen subs for “growing bees.” In addition, large hives might contain reserves of beebread that could add a variable, they are difficult to accurately grade for strength, and must be disturbed to put the patties in contact with the broodnest. The Coloss BeeBook suggests starting with colonies on the order of 5-frame nucs to allow for a robust comparison of the effects of the treatments on growth rates. This sounded good to me, and I thought that I’d add new combs of foundation in order to minimize the variables inherent in drawn combs, such as pesticide residues, pathogens, or existing beebread.
I’d start with well-established nucs headed by recently-mated queens (mated in the same nuc). I’d feed the colonies with pollen sub patties and sugar syrup to encourage them to draw out and occupy the frames of foundation, aiming to grow them into double deep hives (the use of foundation would allow room for the storage of the necessary stimulative syrup over a long period of time).
I’d grade the colonies for strength (using standard “almond grading” of cluster size) at various time points to quantify colony strength, with the final grading at almond bloom in February.
In order to minimize variables, I’d feed all the pollen subs as 1-lb standard patties in waxed paper. Syrup would be fed via inverted half-gallon feeder jars.
I wanted to test a variety of pollen subs from various manufacturers and a wide range of formulations, and came up with the following list (in alphabetical order, with their abbreviated names; formulations in Appendix):
- BeePro: from Mann Lake, as an example of a typical soy/yeast formulation long used by beekeepers.
- Experimental yeast (Yeast): Suggested by Mann Lake to test a yeast-based formulation recommended by beekeepers in the Midwest.
- FeedBee: A Canadian formulation sold in the U.S. and worldwide.
- “Homebrew” formula: my “everything but the kitchen sink” formula which included ingredients not found in the others, such as dried egg yolk, plant phytochemical extracts, Latshaw vitamin/mineral formulation, and corn/canola and coconut oils.
- Mann Lake experimental bulk (Bulk): developed as a cost-effective bulk sub to be chopped into chunks in the field.
- MegaBee (Mega): developed by Dr. Gordon Wardell, and carried by Dadant.
- UltraBee (Ultra): Mann Lake’s flagship product.
- Positive control of natural Calif foothill bee-collected pollen (Natural): mixed trapped foothill pollen from California beekeeper Jeff Becker, blended with sucrose and HFCS, and made into patty form (compliments of Mann Lake Ltd.).
- Negative control without protein supplementation (Negative): no patty given, but the same amount of sugar syrup as given the other groups.
Experimental considerations: There were other formulations that I considered testing, but most were similar to ones above. An exception was the patty produced by California beekeeper (and good friend) Keith Jarrett; after deliberation, he opted to pass on this particular trial. In hindsight, I wish that I had included it. I also contacted the developers of each product, and asked them for comments on feeding their products for optimum effect, since some had been unhappy with the design of other published trials.
A trial of this sort should include both positive and negative control groups, i.e., one receiving a treatment that you already know will give a measurable effect (natural pollen), as well as a negative control that receives no treatment. Technically, the Negative Control group should be fed a sham patty of moistened sugar alone to account for the effect of the sugar (roughly 50%) in the protein patties. On the other hand, the treatment of feeding protein patties adds a hive disturbance and potential bee-crushing variable that an unsupplemented hive would not normally receive. In the case of this trial, since I would be feeding sugar in the syrup (at least 3.25 lbs fed per each patty fed) far in excess of that in the patties (about 0.5 lbs per patty), I felt that a compensatory sugar feeding was unnecessary for the Negative Controls (in all hives, sugar was fed in excess of nutritional requirements, as indicated by the weight gains (not shown) of the colonies).
I wanted enough colonies in each group to be able to detect statistical differences due to treatment (type of pollen sub), so set up 18 hives for each treatment (162 hives total). As a general rule, due to the natural variability of colonies, a minimum of 12 hives should be in each treatment group in order to detect statistically significant differences.
Description of the (First) Experimental Apiary Location
This yard was located in a grassy clearing in an oak/pine habitat at a ranch at 2700-ft elevation in the Sierra foothills. The yard was chosen mainly due to its easy access for the multiple required feedings and for its uniform flat terrain. Its drawback was that it is on the outskirts of town, so there was some opportunity for the bees to forage on natural pollen. This drawback was partially offset by competition between the large number of managed colonies in this and two nearby apiaries of my own.
Abbreviated Experimental Log
Advance preparation: Mann Lake Ltd. prepared their own formulations, and generously volunteered to mix and prepare the Homebrew and Natural patties to my specifications, using ingredients that I shipped to them. I purchased MegaBee patties directly from Dadant. FeedBee patties were custom prepared to the manufacturer’s specifications by Global Patty. A minimum of 360 lbs of patties (20 lbs per hive) was obtained for each group, and stored in a cool room (Fig. 1).
July 23-31, 2013 Set up 9 groups of 18 colonies in the test yard. Started with 5-frame nucs with new queens that had been laying for 2-5 weeks; nucs from various queen mothers distributed equally into all test groups. Laid out the 9 groups w/ all hives facing the same direction, each group separated by built landmarks (drums, cinder blocks, and pallets) (Fig. 2).
We checked all colonies for health and queenrightness, replacing any questionable ones. We worked all the nucs into singles containing only 5 frames, so as to be able to easily see the size of the starting cluster; we equalized all until the two visible sides of the outside frames were covered with a single layer of bees (Fig. 3). There was a light nectar flow on, and colonies started building small amounts of comb from the lids, so after equalization we added a frame of foundation to either side.
August 8--Time Point 0: Natural pollen flow nearly over, colonies slowing down broodrearing. No noticeable change in strengths. Assigned treatment groups by random number generator, and filled the boxes to 10 frames with additional foundation (Fig. 3b). Feeding #1: fed each colony 1 patty plus ½ gal syrup (9:1 Pro-Sweet:water).
Experimental considerations: Treatment groups should always be either randomly (not arbitrarily or haphazardly) or systematically assigned to avoid any inadvertent investigator effect.
I needed to control varroa infestation as a variable, but didn’t want to stress the nucs with my usual formic acid or thymol treatments. So I used (for my first time) 1 Apivar® amitraz strip hung in the center of each nuc, hoping to obtain a near complete mite kill by using this extended-release synthetic miticide. Since we’d also seen some EFB in the operation this spring, I also treated each colony with 1 Tbl Terra Pro® OTC antibiotic (we observed no EFB during the course of the trial).
August 12-18: Four more feedings of ½ gal Pro-Sweet syrup diluted to 60% sugar. Queens laying well due to syrup stimulation, but little young brood. Still ...
Technology 1: An Internet-based Honey Bee Learning Tool
Our world is changing faster than ever. With the powerful steed of technology bounding into the future, most of us are getting dragged along behind, whether we like it or not. Generally speaking, beekeepers are not the most technocentric crowd – I’d say we’re more appreciators of the flowers and sunshine of the natural world – but there are people out there using an incredible conglomerate of gadgets and applications to work with bees. This series of articles will look at how today’s technology is shaping beekeeping and research as we know it.
On the morning of April the 3rd, I watched German bees crawl out of their entrance and swoop away to scour the landscape. With the sun shining (solar intensity 480 watt/m2 ) the air was warming up nicely (12º C, pressure: 940 mbar) and the humidity had come down during the early dawn (from 100% to 62%). This was one of the first real days of the honeybee spring. In recent days the surrounding landscape had bloomed and the bees were bringing in nectar (On the 29th of March the hive weighed 53 kg and this day they started at 56 kg). Looking at the repeating weight pattern on the chart was interesting. At such a fine scale (minute by minute) it resembled a set of off-kilter stairs - a sharp gain during the day followed by the slow descent of ripening at night, and then a little dip in the morning as the bulk of foragers left the hive. As I watched the hive entrance, the activity seemed to increase. Turning back to the data I found the number of incoming and outgoing bees ascending rapidly, just as the outside air crossed 11º C.
Yet, when I turned my eyes from one window to the other – that is, from the computer screen to the window outside – I saw a blustery gale beating raindrops against the glass. The Scottish bees in my neighborhood would not be leaving the hives, instead remaining in their warm, safe cluster. But with the click of a button, I could watch the live stream of German bees head into a wonderful sunny morning a mere 1000 miles away.
This can be done from Scotland, USA or even Mongolia – anywhere with an internet connection – thanks to Honey Bee Online Studies, or HOBOS; a non-profit, online education tool. HOBOS is the project of Dr. Jüegen Tautz, a professor at the Universität Würzburg in Germany. Dr Tautz, a bee researcher, who has published a number of articles and books, began developing HOBOS in 2006 and the website first came online in June 2009. For it’s first version, school classes from nine countries were able to see inside a honey bee colony via the internet, but now this tool has expanded to the world.
HOBOS is the ultimate observation hive monitored with a hefty assemblage of electronic equipment – 13 temperature sensors (one between each frame, as well as front and back of the hive), a humidity sensor, a bidirectional light barrier to register incoming and outgoing bees and an electronic scale, all of which are hooked up to a datalogger and published on the website in real time. The front of the hive entrance is monitored by two cameras, and both are able to be viewed live in two different qualities. One camera is for normal viewing of entrance activity and the other for thermographic imagery. Switching to the thermographic camera shows the hot and cold sensors jumping around the screen to follow the bright-hot bees, making it feel like the footage of a night-battle or a heat-seeking missile.
The website also shoves the viewer directly into the hive, where two endoscopic cameras reveal what happens behind closed doors. These use a light wavelength which is invisible for the bees so “their natural behavior can thus be observed under the total darkness in the hive.” One camera is set in the middle of comb alley six and the other is on the floor of comb ally eleven. The floor angle shows the bees clustering in a night-vision sort of light, while the other view adequately conveys what it must feel like to be a bee inside a cluster; everything mashed together in a mess of gray and black with a leg appearing here, an abdomen standing out there. While watching these videos the in-hive buzzing floods out of the computer speakers, which I found to be a lovely soundtrack while typing this article or for any other work on the computer.
Outside the hive a 6th camera allows the user to look over the surrounding garden which holds the nearby weather station. This station measures air pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electric field strength, precipitation, wind speed/direction, solar radiation, soil moisture and leaf wetness, all of which are also published in real time on the site’s chart. The chart is the website’s user interface – where I found the numbers reported above. The casual user is able to play with a few different variables, but after signing up (which is free) and logging in, the user is able to use any combination (up to 6 at a time) of the measurements. These can be looked at in very fine detail, down to the minute or even second, or seen in the context of the entire data set (from 2011, it seems).
All these devices create ....
The Beez Kneez - A Zany, Successful Business
Crazy is the first thought that comes to mind when the women in bee outfits and
wacky antennae on their helmets round the corner of a Minneapolis street
on their bikes, pulling little trailers full of honey jars. Learning what they
are up to makes it plain that they are crazy like a fox.
Kristy Allen and Erin Rupp started The Beez Kneez, LLC,1 in 2010. Kristy describes the venture as “a humble idea that has succeeded beyond our wildest dreams.” Beyond selling honey, they provide education classes and operate a community beekeeping center. Their infectious enthusiasm has enlivened the larger beekeeping community – even long-time commercial people. Their wild dreaming is far from over; their stated mission is to “revive the hive.” Be careful what you wish for: They have found themselves thrust into bee politics from the city to the state level.
Their paths seem star-crossed: Both were dedicated to bees as models for sustainability, and, as human examples, both were dedicated bicycle commuters. Erin graduated in Environmental Studies and Geology from Macalester College in St. Paul, MN, and became involved with environmental education. She worked with youth farming programs and the Bell Museum of Natural History at the University of Minnesota, where she taught about insects. The curator of education there, Kevin Williams, is a beekeeper who whetted her interest in bees. She took the UM Beekeeping Short Course at the Spivak Lab and began keeping her own hives, which she moved to Foxtail Farm, a teaching CSA in Osseola, WI, about 50 miles northeast of Minneapolis.
Kristy’s journey was more circuitous: She graduated from UM in Global Studies and proceeded to navigate the globe, volunteering on sustainable farms. She spent a year at Heifer International’s ranch in Arkansas working with the vegetable crop, livestock and experiential education.
During that time, she visited her aunt and uncle, Eileen and Ed Menefee, commercial beekeepers with 1000 hives at Bar Bell Bee Ranch, north of Grand Rapids, in Squaw Lake, MN.2 She describes her first look into a hive as “amazing. I was fascinated with the connection to the food system. That’s what hooked me.”
Soon after, she was off for the mountains of Ecuador, where she managed an organic production and demonstration farm. That is a story in itself: La Finca Urkuwayku is a project of Steven Sherwood, a plant pathologist and research fellow at Wageningen University in The Netherlands, and his wife Miriam.3 Kristy helped build water catchment basins on their land, which had some beehives on it. She went to meetings of aged local beekeepers “that went on and on forever. They would talk romantically about bees and how they listen to them. They had a few hives, and they were self-sustainable.”
Back in Minneapolis the following summer, she worked with the 100 hives at The Sioux, Mdewakanton, Shakopee Community Wozupi (Dakota language for garden), a five-acre vegetable CSA.
Meanwhile, five years ago, when they had been married just two years, the Menefees suffered the loss of 90% of their bees. “We had to figure out a way to recover,” said Eileen. Their answer was in the growing local food movement; they began promoting their raw honey at fairs and farmers’ markets, where they found ample opportunity to educate a curious public about all pollinators.
Kristy joined her aunt and uncle to work their bees, and she jumped at the offer to sell their honey at the Minneapolis Farmers’ Market. The Menefees had been bottling in their garage, using plastic to hedge against breakage. But Kristy asked for hers in glass jars, and she soon came up with a professionally designed label.
“Our little part in getting her started was just a taste. Kristy was so determined. Our sales of raw and unprocessed honey have gone through the roof -- up 40%, so we don’t sell wholesale bulk anymore. We sell directly to grocery stores and to the consumer. We have gotten a bigger building and an extraction room. We still sell half of our honey as processed, because people want to be able to pour it.
“It’s a phenomenon. The information put out by people like Kristy and The National Honey Board has been awesome. Everyone who buys honey gets the [NHB] booklet. The University of Minnesota education programs are so important, and people love it.
“My husband has been a beekeeper for 40 years. Every time he looks in a hive he is excited. He’s continually fascinated and wants to learn. That’s when you find a true beekeeper, and that’s what happened to Kristy. She just ran with it.”
Or pedaled with it; as a dedicated cyclist, Kristy painted her bike and dressed in bee black and yellow, attached pipe-cleaner bee antennae to her helmet and began selling honey door to door.
The Menefees had given Kristy her own bees, which she placed at Foxtail Farm. The 16 acre plot, owned by Paul and Chris Burkhouse, provides weekly CSA boxes for over 300 members as well as training for new organic farmers. Erin Rupp had been keeping bees for several years, and the short-lived irony is that she and Kristy had their hives at different entrances to the farm, coming and going to tend their colonies unbeknownst to one another.
When they at last met, they talked bees, as beekeepers do, but their discussion turned to the need for pollinator education. Kristy was already planning to establish urban hives through Beez Kneez, and Erin wanted to create experiential learning by bringing people into hives – something that she could not do at the museum. “Our work is aligned,” said Erin.
Erin and Kristy launched their pilot year in the summer of 2012, originally calling it Community Bees on Bikes. They established hives at host sites at Twin Cities area schools, parks, community gardens and urban farms, reaching over 150 children and adults with their in-hive classes.
“Barriers have fallen,” said Kristy. By the first year, they had 20 hives – half in the city, half in the country. By last year, they had 50 hives, with city hives located in three Minnesota parks, two schools, the Bakken Museum and many urban farms and gardens.4
“We want to source honey locally more and more,” said Kristy. “The problem is that the country bees are not making as much honey as the city bees. Of our 30 hives in the country we were able to harvest off only two. Of the 20 hives in the city, all but two had about 40 pounds, even when we left ample for overwintering.” (Cities generally have 10° warmer temperatures and season-long backyard forage, which may contribute to the difference.) Next year, they hope to increase to 75 hives and reach a goal of 100 the following year.
Proceedings of the American Bee Research Conference
2. Burand, J.P.a, S. Zhenga & K. Stonerb. - Epizootiology of Honey Bee Viruses in Bee Populations Pollinating Cucurbits aDepartment of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), and bConnecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504
3. Catalfamo, K.M., B.E. Traver, H.K. Feazel-Orr, N.G. Johnson, T.D. Anderson & R.D. Fell - VIRUS PREVALENCE IN HONEY BEES FOLLOWING COLONY TREATMENT WITH CHLOROTHALONIL, FUMAGILLIN, AND TAU-FLUVALINATE Virginia Tech University, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, VA, 24061 (e-mail: email@example.com)
5. Eiri, D.M.a, G. Suwannapongb, M. Endlerc & J.C. Niehc – NOSEMA CERANAE CAN INFECT HONEY BEE LARVAE AND REDUCE SUBSEQUENT ADULT LONGEVITY aDepartment of Integrative Biology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), bDepartment of Biology, Burapha University, Chon Buri 20131, Thailand, cDivision of Biological Sciences, Section of Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093
Queens for Pennies
by Randy Oliver
I’ve been encouraged in recent years by the number of beekeepers who appear to be successfully keeping locally-adapted stocks of bees without treatment for varroa. I am a strong supporter of their efforts, and see them as the wave of the future.
But First a Rant
Unfortunately, there is also a great deal of confusion as to what “treatment free” beekeeping really means. Allow me to use an analogy to explain:
Dairymen prefer to keep Holstein cattle. Holsteins are thin-skinned, thoroughly domesticated cattle selected solely for milk production. Their normal care requires shelter, supplemental feeding, routine vaccinations, and treatment with antibiotics. If a dairyman turned his Holsteins out on the range to fend for themselves without care, and half of them died each year, he would be accused of having committed animal neglect—“the failure to provide the basic care required for an animal to thrive.”
Yet this is exactly what thousands of recreational beekeepers do every year. Under the misconception that they are practicing “treatment free” beekeeping, they are in actuality simply neglecting their domesticated animals. The reason for this is that they are starting with commercial package bees—bees akin to Holstein cattle, in that they are bred for high brood and honey production under standard management practices (notably mite management, but also supplemental feeding or antibiotic treatment if indicated). Most commercial bee stocks should be considered as domesticated animals. There is absolutely no reason to expect that your wishful thinking will miraculously transform your newly-purchased “domesticated” bees into hardy survivor stock able to survive as wild animals without standard care and treatment.
Now don’t get me wrong, I am no more criticizing the commercial queen producers than I would criticize the dedicated breeders of Holstein cattle. The queen breeders are producing the best breeds for beekeepers willing to provide their colonies with the “standard” degree of husbandry (which includes at this time, treatment(s) of some sort for varroa). I have no problem whatsoever with that; but my crystal ball says that someday the market will dwindle for bees that require regular treatment for mites.
Do not disillusion yourself. Allowing domesticated package colonies to die year after year is not in any way, shape, or form a contribution to the breeding of mite-resistant stocks. There is a vast difference between breeding for survivor stock and simply allowing commercial bees to die from neglect! By introducing commercial bees year after year into an area, and then allowing those package colonies to first produce drones and then to later die from varroa, these well-meaning but misguided beekeepers screw up any evolutionary progress that the local feral populations might be making towards developing natural resistance to varroa. Not only that, but those collapsing “mite bombs” create problems for your neighbors. Referring to yourself as a bee-keeper confers upon you a responsibility to the local beekeeping community. Allowing hives to collapse from AFB or varroa makes you a disease-spreading
Enough scolding. I strongly support those willing to actually practice selective breeding for treatment-free (or minimal treatment) locally-adapted stocks of bees. But let me be frank (try to stop me); if you start your hive with commercial stock, then by all means care for them as domesticated animals! If you want to go treatment free, then start with survivor stock bred to be naturally resistant to mites and viruses, such as VSH, Russian, or locally-adapted ferals. Do not kid yourself into thinking that allowing innocent domesticated bees to die a slow and ugly death is the same thing as breeding for survivor stock—“breeding” instead means the propagation of bees that don’t die—the key word being propagation. And this is a frustration for many well-intentioned beginners—no one in their area is propagating survivor stock for sale. That is why I wrote this article.
To me, it is a crime against nature not to breed daughters from that fantastic survivor colony. But most beekeepers think that it is beyond their scope of ability to raise queens. Nonsense! Let me show you how to raise about 10 queens at a time for pennies apiece. This is not the way we do it commercially, but this method can be easily practiced by most anyone.
A Simple Method
I’m going show you step by step how to raise about 10 queen cells in a simple queenless cell builder. Here’s a list of everything that you’ll need:
- A chosen breeder queen hive.
- A strong, healthy donor colony from which to make the cell builder hive.
- An empty brood box with a bottom board and cover to use for the cell builder hive.
- If there is no nectar flow occurring, a syrup feeder.
- If you’re over 40, a lighted magnifying headband.
- A few Chinese grafting tools.
- JZ’s BZ’s plastic cell cups.
- A damp towel
- Any sort of nuc boxes or divided hive bodies in which to mate out the queens.
Timing: It’s easiest, and you’ll get the best queens, by raising them during swarming season. Look for when your colonies start building queen cells on the bottom bars, or when they are full of emerged drones.
Day 0—Locate the future queen larvae: Before you start setting up the cell builder, first make sure that you can find larvae of the right age from your chosen breeder queen. Go into her colony and make sure that there’s an older, dark frame containing well-fed freshly-hatched larvae. Mark this frame for later recovery and put it back into the hive. You want to graft from the youngest larvae possible—when they are still the size of an egg, and just starting to curl (as in the photo above).
Choose a donor colony: This is the colony (or colonies) from which you will steal nurse bees to make up your cell builder. It must be healthy, full of brood, and the larvae should be well fed with jelly as an indicator of the nurses being in a good state of nutrition. Locate the queen of your donor colony and temporarily set her and the frame she’s on aside in a nuc box for safekeeping.
Set up the cell builder hive: Put down a bottom board with an empty brood box wherever you want to make your queenless cell builder (its entrance should be at least several feet away from the donor colony). Into this box, you are going to put at least 4 frames in the order above (the breeder larvae frame will be added later):
A comb of open larvae: Start with a comb containing some open brood and eggs. This will be the core of the cell builder, around which the nurse bees will cluster. You don’t want a solid frame of young brood competing with the queen cells for feeding—just a patch of young larvae emerging over the next few days to stimulate the nurse bees to produce an abundance of royal jelly. The rest of the frame can be sealed brood, beebread, or whatever.
Cut a channel the width of a hive tool: parallel to the top bar, at least midway up the frame, in either the pollen frame or open brood frame as shown. Scrape out the comb right down to the foundation.
Add the nurse bees: Now shake all the bees from all the frames of the donor hive (other than the one that the queen was on) into the cell builder hive. The older bees will quickly fly back to the donor hive, leaving your cell builder full of young nurse bees. You have now created a free-flying queenless cell builder colony. At this time you can temporarily add the frame of larvae to be grafted.
As you were shaking bees, if there was nectar shaking from the combs, the bees do not need to be fed. If not, then lightly drench all the bees with 1:1 syrup and add a quart of syrup in a top feeder jar. Put a cover on the cell builder and check back in an hour.
One-hour check back for strength: After an hour, your cell builder should look like this—bees covering the frames and hanging from the lid. If there are not this many bees, then shake additional bees (through a sieve box) off of brood combs from other donor colonies. A strong starter like this can rear up to 50 queen cells, even in a snowstorm.
Now wait a few to several hours. It takes a few hours for the bees to recognize that they are queenless, and to be ready to start building emergency queen cells. What you are going to now do is to give them chosen larvae from which to rear those cells.
I got the idea for this method from observing my bees building queen cells as in the photo above. It occurred to me that we could duplicate the process with prepared queen cups, thus avoiding the need for the recreational beekeeper to use cell bars to hold the queen cells (commercial guys typically put about 50 grafted cells distributed on 3 cell bars into a special frame).
Down to the nitty gritty—grafting. Yes, I said “grafting.” ......
Liz Vaenoski - Queen of Beeswax Sculpting and Advocate
for the American Beekeeper
by Karen Nielson Lorence
Beekeepers know the importance of the queen in the hive. She is the mother of the colony, the central nervous system of the hive, the producer of the workers and drones. Beekeepers in the United States have a ‘sort’ of queen who advocates for them in the industry and who
sees that things get done by her generous donations at the American Beekeeping Federation convention and in state clubs.Liz Vaenoski is that queen...that monarch...who rules exclusively in the realm of beeswax molding. Liz got into serious beekeeping 33 years ago when she married John Vaenoski, but her interest in bees came long before
She grew up in beekeeping as her uncle, Marcus Osborne, was a commercial beekeeper at that time. Both of her parents worked during the day, so she would hop on her bike in the summer and ride the four miles out to her uncle’s apiary. He ran 1200 hives in Beloit, Wisconsin and was an active member of the American Beekeeping Federation. Liz wanted to be a beekeeper, but her uncle would not take her on as a partner because, in his words, “beekeeping was not for girls.”
It was in September of 1979 when Liz’s aunt and uncle invited her out to a Friday night fish fry with them and included John Vaenoski in the invitation. John had been a commercial beekeeper since 1959 and was widowed. The first time Liz met John, she said to herself, “I’d like to marry that guy but...” It didn’t take long for the couple to realize that they had a lot in common in addition to their love of bees. John first offered her a friendship ring followed by an engagement ring in December. But Liz knew it was for real when he bought her an engraved stainless steel hive tool. They were married in May of 1980.
Now Liz will quip that this is not exactly the correct chain of events. With a smile on her face, she says it went something like this: “John put out an ad saying, ‘Wanted: Single girl with extractor. Send picture of the extractor.’ I did (send a picture of the extractor) and he liked what he saw and married me.”
John Vaenoski had 1400 hives at that time and worked them mainly for honey production. He would drive out from his grocery store in Maywood Park outside of Chicago and work his bees and then go back to the grocery store in the evenings. His first wife would extract the honey... as much as 6 drums a day. One year she totaled 254 drums of honey. John had only one helper. Liz jumped right in after they married and LOVED it! John died in 1997 and Liz still keeps 150 hives today, working with one helper two days a week.
This biographical story of Liz now evolves to how and when Liz got started in beeswax sculpting. If you have ever been to an American Beekeeping Federation convention, you most likely have seen a sculpture that Liz has created, either in keeping with the theme of the year or with the interest of the potential bidders.
The wax that she uses comes from her own hives, starting first as cappings from her cappings melter. Water is NEVER put with the cappings. A double boiler type of set up is used where the wax is in a container above hot water. Liz’s set up is a melter, 6’ The Wisconsin Honey Producers met in November and Liz donated this sculpture for their auction. long and 4’ wide. In the wax container, the wax will flow out one hole while the honey flows out the second hole. Why? Because wax is lighter than honey. However, she is the first to suggest that a make-shift double boiler on the top of a range could be used if you are a smaller beekeeper. Her advice:
Wax has a 140 degree melting point. Melt your wax; do not cook it! Over-heating will burn the honey. Do not stir cappings. When cappings are completely liquified, take the container off the heat and let it set. The wax will be on top and the honey will be on the bottom. That honey can be used for baking, for feeding back to the bees, or for customers who prefer a full-bodied honey. She even suggests you sell it as a special feature since it is thicker and more highly colored and flavored than extracted honey.
Now that the wax has set, it is time to remove it from the mold. Remember....this is just the first step in making a wax sculpture. There may be impurities on the bottom. Scrape these impurities off of the wax and save those scrapings to re-melt a second time. Your pure wax on the top is now ready to be perfected...either for sale or for use. If you are going to sell processed
wax in its rendered form, you can re-melt the wax and run it through a paper towel. You may then want to get containers that represent 1#, 1/2# or 1/4# quantities. Your customers may want to try their hand at candle making, value added products, or beeswax molding.
Here are some of Liz Vaenoski’s suggestions:
● Get small molds with lots of detail. Detail is what makes you see the figure as an angel or something specific.
● You may, in some cases, use a kind of release agent. If the figurine is still difficult to remove from the mold, put it in the freezer for a short time and it will shrink slightly. Don’t use release if you are going to paint as the release agent may have an oil base.
● When using ceramic molds, the temperature must be very low. If you cannot get the mold apart, put the mold on a cookie sheet or cake pan, upside down, and put it in the oven. The wax will then run out.
● If your candles bloom from the cold temperatures, remove the bloom by using a blow dryer or by polishing with a soft cloth.
● To increase your sales of candles, demonstrate dipping them at the same time you are selling. Or...have a pot with wax heating in it, but not in an outdoor market. You will draw bees.
● Always put labels on to warn your customer about the fire hazard that candles present.
● Wick size is determined by the diameter of the candle. Candles burn1 hour for each inch of a 1” diameter candle in general. For a pillar candle, remember that the area = π r2.
● Liz flattens out the bottoms of her candles and sculptures most often with a hot plate, warning us that THIS IS AFIRE HAZARD!!! This should not be done without the utmost care.
Besides candles, Liz also makes ornaments, wall decorations, and sculptures. Here is where her artistic talent is showcased. Using every single ‘trick in the book,’ Liz takes advantage of bizarre receptacles to make the first shapes....potato chip lid for a hat brim, egg shells, small boxes and oddly shaped containers. These are eventually joined to make the shapes she is looking for. How does she secure these shapes together to get her final sculpture? A wire is inserted between two pieces. An Exacto knife blade is heated up. Put between the wax, the two pieces will each melt and then meld together. The Exacto knife is then used to smooth out the juncture of the two pieces. All of this takes a lot of patience. Using foundation for thin items, Liz warns that this is tough to work with. She has made sails for boats as well as leaves for trees out of foundation and then adheres them to the project she is making. A quick dip into liquid wax gives an added insurance that they will bond more securely.
She has been known to scour craft stores for bargains that she can use for her beeswax creations. A leftover Easter egg tree one year was purchased, wrapped with thread around each branch (so wax will adhere to it) and then dipped, re-dipped, and dipped yet again into hot wax. To this she added cookie cutout leaves and yes....it was immersed again.
Liz Vaenoski is a modest person who does not seek notoriety. Yet, she is well known in the beekeeping community as an aggressive advocate for the honey bee. She supports the American Beekeeping Federation with her donations and is willing to do so for any state by making an item for their organization to auction. All the state association needs to do is to pay for the postage. Texas, Iowa, California, and Wisconsin have all taken advantage of her generosity. When asked what her preferred part of beekeeping is, she answered with a laugh, “Winter!” Her favorite (and hardest) wax sculpture? An extractor with the center moving, set to the sound of a music box playing “Roll out the Barrel.”
Liz’s favorite part of beekeeping is talking and teaching about bees. They have been very special to her for so many reasons. Her inquisitive nature loved learning the science of beekeeping. She has met so many interesting and wonderful people. Mainly, however, she concurs that the ‘way of the beehive’ is the way we all should be living. Each bee has a job to do and does it. Bees work together for the betterment of the community. And..they are willing to sacrifice for the betterment of the hive.
Thank you Liz Vaenoski for providing photos of your beeswax sculptures.
Tax Q & A
by Howard Scott
I’ve been writing beekeeping tax columns for 15 years and have received many questions. So this time, I am reproducing the most-frequently asked or most intriguing questions and my responses.
Q: Should I file a Schedule C or Schedule F?
A: Schedule C is for small business owners. Schedule F is for farmers. Each form has useful entries. But, since Schedule C is simpler, I suggest using Schedule C. All tax preparers are familiar with Schedule C, but only a few practitioners are comfortable with Schedule F. Plus the result will be the same. If you make $4.000 profit using a Schedule C, you will make the same earnings using a Schedule F. Possibly the Schedule F could help you allocate costs of livestock better, but that isn’t really necessary.
Q: I have lost money on my beekeeping on my last four years. How serious is that?
A: It depends. If you lost $100,000 a year and deducted it from other income, the IRS might be interested in looking over your books. But if you lost, say $500 to $1,000 a year, then it’s not too serious. Of course, you must be able to explain why you lost money. Perhaps you purchased many packages and most of them died. Maybe you invested in equipment for making beeswax cosmetics and it hasn’t paid off yet. The rule is, a business, to be a business, must earn money in 3 out of 5 years, but that guideline isn’t hard fast. If you could defend your poor performance so that an IRS agent accepts it, you could continue to lose money.
Q: What are you if not a business?
A: You’re a hobby. Generally speaking, a hobbyist is taxed on his revenue, but not on his expenses. Or, if you have lots of job expenses and are filing form 2106, your beekeeping expenses are only partially deducted. The net result will be a higher tax liability.
Q: If I have a separate building as a honey house, can I take a home office?
A: Strictly speaking, yes, you can. But the advantage of a home office is that it captures a portion of normal home costs—heat, electricity, water, mortgage, taxes, home maintenance, repairs—as expenses. A separate structure has limits. You cannot take any of these general expenses. Plus, if you elect to have a home office, you have to add back depreciation when you sell the house. That means you will pay some tax when you sell your home, which normally would not be the case. That’s because there is a house sale exemption ($500,000 gain exemption if married, $250,000 gain exemption if single), but this exemption does not include the home office deduction. So, unless your honey business is a major part of your income (over 50%), I would not bother with a home office. The other exception to this is when you can isolate the costs of your honey house (have a separate electric meter, etc.)
Q: How should I calculate cost of the bees?
A: Keep it simple. The money you spend on packages are the cost. Buy 20 packages at $80 each. Livestock cost is $1,600. If you do ten successful splits, then have 30 hives, livestock cost is still $1,600. Per hive cost goes from $80 to $53.33 ($1,600 divided by 30). If you purchase 10 queens at $10 each, then your livestock expense is now $1,700 ($1,600 + $100). Livestock cost is the total money you spend to purchase bees.
Q: Should I incorporate?
A: You incorporate because of liability, not economic reasons. If you are worried about being sued, then incorporate. A lawyer might charge you $500 to draw up the papers. What is the chance of having a lawsuit being filed against you? Well, if someone swallows a shard of glass in one of your honey bottles, and incurs medical expense, they might sue. If someone eats your honey, gets sick, and experiences serious medical issues, they might sue. If someone walking across your property is stung, and goes into anaphylactic shock, they might sue. If your truck carrying beehives crashes into another car, and the bees sting a person badly, they might sue. Probably the answer depends on the scope of your operation. If you are a small operator with fewer than 10 hives, the chance of a lawsuit is so remote that I wouldn’t bother incorporating. Otherwise, I might go through the expense of incorporating.
Q: I hear there are changes in Social Security this year? Will they be costly?
A: From 2011 and 2012, there was a temporary payroll cut in Social Security from 6.2% to 4.2%. In 2013, that expired. Consequently, as a self-employed beekeeper, your Social Security liability will go from 13.3% (4.2 + 6.2 + 1.45 + 1.45) to 15.3% (6.2 + 6.2 + 1.45 + 1.45). So if your beekeeping business made $10,000 profit, you will pay $200 more tax.
Q: It seems when I do my own taxes and try to fill out the Schedule C, I wind up paying two taxes. Is that correct?
A: On your self-employment income, you pay Federal tax at the bottom of Schedule C. But you also have to pay Social Security, which is computed in Schedule SE. Both your self-employment federal liability and Social Security obligation is reinstated on Form 1040, on lines 12 and 56, respectively. That’s the double-taxation you are talking about. It is confusing, but it’s not double taxing. In your weekly paycheck, Federal, Social Security, and State taxes are deducted. It’s simply unavoidable. Indeed, you will most likely have to pay state taxes on your beekeeping income.
Q: But why do I have to pay double Social Security on Schedule C?
A: It’s true, you pay both the employee (7.65% = 6.2% + 1.45% Medicare) and employer (7.65%) portion, for a total of 15.3%. So your Social Security takes a bigger bite than if you were just an employee. On the other hand, you get to deduct expenses from this revenue, which would not be possible as a employee, generally speaking. So incorporate, pay yourself a salary as an employee, and you will only pay 7.65%.
Q: How many beekeepers file their beekeeping income taxes?
A: I do. Others do. Certainly someone with a going business does. It is the law to file all worldwide income. But, you’re probably right. Nine out of ten backyard beekeepers probably don’t file their beekeeping activity. My bee club recently set itself up as a 501(C) nonprofit corporation simply because it wanted to comply with the law. You never know when the IRS will stick its nose in your business, and you’ll have to account for this activity.
Q: I have a combo business of producing honey and removing hives, in which I obtain more honey. In addition, I do traditional carpentry. Should I keep them separate? How should I account for the different honey flows?
A: If you are seriously trying to make this into a business, then you you should separate as much as possible. Compartmentalizing revenues and expenses allow you to see what’s going on in each area. So have one revenue trough for honey sales, hive removal, and carpentry. Merge honey sales with honey obtained from hive removal, for ease of bookkeeping. But divide expenses among the appropriate categories. If there is some overlap, divide equally among the three revenue categories.
Q: What can I deduct in mileage?
A: Any trips that directly relate to your bee work. If you visit your outyards, that’s allowable. If you trek to a supplier or attend a convention, that’s allowable. If you do a farmers’ market, all commuting miles are countable. Even your bee club meetings are useable, because such membership helps you be a more proficient practitioner.
To keep track, set up a travel sheet, listing date, destination, reason, and miles travelled. That’s your backup documentation.
I hope this helps.
Scott is a 30-year beekeeper and 20-year tax preparer specializing in small businesses. He keeps bees in Pembroke, MA.